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Glossary of Technical Terms Full List

The glossary is also available as a searchable database HERE.

 

Glossary of Technical Terms Full List

The glossary is also available as a searchable database HERE.

 

[0-9] - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

 

16:9
See Widescreen (TV)

 

24p
Refers to 24 frames-per-second, progressive scan, the frame rate of sound motion picture film, and one of the rates allowed for transmission in the DVB and ATSC television standards so that they can show film without needing any frame-rate change.

 

3:2 Pull-down
Method used to map the 24 fps of motion picture film onto the 30 fps (60 fields) of 525-line NTSC TV.

 

A & S
ACTION AND SOUND. See MUTE AND TRACK

 

A and B CUT NEGATIVE
A CUT NEGATIVE film made by A and B CUTTING for printing by A and B PRINTING.

 

A and B CUTTING
A method of assembling negative film for printing in two (or more, ie. C, D, E etc.) separate rolls to permit special effects, such as dissolves, in 16mm and 35mm film, or to hide splices in 16mm film. Scenes are cut with alternating BLACK SPACING. Also called CHECKERBOARD cutting in the USA.

 

A and B PRINT
A print made by A & B PRINTING from an A and B CUT NEGATIVE (called CHECKERBOARD print in the USA).

 

A and B PRINTING
The technique of printing A and B CUT NEGATIVES. The rolls are printed in sequence with the two starts synchronized to produce the final edited print. See also MULTI-ROLL PRINTING.

 

A and B ROLL (PROJECTION)
A dual film projection technique where image film with no soundtrack is projected in projector while another uses sound track on film. See also DOUBLE HEADED.

 

A and B ROLLS (C, D and so on)
The rolls of cut negative used for A and B PRINTING /MULTIROLL PRINTING/MULTI-ROLL PRINTING.

 

A and B WINDING/S
The two forms, or geometries, of winding used for rolls of 16mm, or other single side perforated film. A WIND film unwinds clockwise with the perforations nearest the observer and the emulsion side in, B WIND film unwinds clockwise with the perforation away from the observer and the emulsion side in. Standard SMPTE 75M.

 

A or B TYPE
Terms used to indicate the geometry of a 16mm film: in A type films the image is correct when viewed through the emulsion, in B type it is correct when viewed through the base.

 

A-D STRIP
Acid Detection Strip - A-D Strips are a proprietary brand of dye-coated paper strips that detect and measure the severity of acetate film deterioration, a.k.a. VINEGAR SYNDROME, in film collections.

 

A/B
See A and B CUTTING

 

A/D or ADC
Analogue to digital conversion (of signals) = Digitisation or quantisation.

 

ACADEMY
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, AMPAS (USA), also a general terms for the set of standards that define the camera and projection gate or mask dimensions for the ACADEMY FORMAT

 

ACADEMY APERTURE
GATE aperture of a 35mm motion picture camera or projector with dimension as specified in the ACADEMY FORMAT.

 

ACADEMY CURVE
A standard sound equalisation curve for pre-1975 OPTICAL SOUNDTRACKS, first standardised in 1938.

 

ACADEMY FORMAT
AMPAS defined standard for camera and projector masks for screen picture with an ASPECT RATIO of nominally1:1.37.

 

ACADEMY GATE/MASK
Dimensions of (not identical) camera and projector GATE as defined by the ACADEMY FORMAT.

 

ACADEMY LEADER
LEADER on a film print with synchronising marks and information as specified by the AMPAS. See also COUNT-DOWN LEADER.

 

ACCESS
Procedure of locating and supplying archive film for display in a suitable format for users' needs

 

ACES
Academy Color Encoding System - A set of components for a wide range of motion picture workflows intended to eliminate the ambiguity of previous file formats. At its heart is a file format specification in the form of an enhanced and constrained version of OpenEXR, a high dynamic range image file format.

 

ACETATE
Loose term for CELLULOSE ACETATE film BASE, which may encompass both TRIACETATE and DIACETATE.

 

ACID DYES
Dyes used for tinting film emulsions in aqueous solution, in which the negative ion (anion) is the colour-forming group.

 

ACTION AND SOUND
Same as MUTE AND TRACK

 

ACTIVE PICTURE
The area of a TV frame that carries picture information. Outside the active area there are other lines and field blanking.

 

ACUTANCE
Term used to describe the edge definition at a density change in a film image.

 

ACVL
Association of Cinema and Video Laboratories (USA).

 

ADDITIVE COLOUR
Colour created by adding together light of different colours (usually Red Green and Blue) so that each component adds to the perceived colour. See also SUBTRACTIVE COLOUR.

 

ADDITIVE SYNTHESIS (COLOUR)
The creation of colour by adding together light of different colours (usually Red Green and Blue). See also SUBTRACTIVE SYNTHESIS.

 

ADR
Automated Dialogue Replacement: the process of re-recording a dialogue track after filming (US term). See POST-SYNC.

 

ADVANCE
The separation, usually defined by the number of frames, between a point on the film sound track and the corresponding picture image for correct synchronization. See also OFFSET.

 

AERIAL IMAGE
An optical virtual image in space rather than a real image on a screen

 

ALIASING
In digital imagery, where smooth curves are reproduced as jagged steps due to an insufficiently high sampling rate. See also CONTOURING.

 

ALIENS
A colloquial term for ALIAS effects, including ringing, contouring and jaggy edges.

 

AMPAS
See ACADEMY.

 

ANAGLYPH
Stereoscopic projection where both left and right eye positive images are reproduced in different colours, usually red and cyan, on a single frame and single film strip, and viewed by complementary coloured filters.

 

ANALYSER
Video display equipment for grading a film negative that produces an image that simulates a film print, and gives printer exposure values for the red, green and blue elements.

 

ANALYSIS
Process of separately producing records of red, green and blue light corresponding to these components in a scene.

 

ANAMORPHIC (film image)
A cinematographic image with lateral (usually) compression produced by an anamorphic lens, designed to be projected using an anamorphic lens.

 

ANAMORPHIC (optical system)
An optical lens system with different vertical and horizontal magnifications, used for anamorphic photography, or projection.

 

ANAMORPHIC (video image)
A 16:9 video image compressed laterally into a 4:3 format, designed to be displayed uncompressed on a widescreen (16:9) television.

 

ANILINE DYES
Dye chemicals produced from aniline, invented originally from coal in the 19th century.

 

ANIMATION
The presentation of a sequence of images, usually created as artwork or from model photography, in rapid succession to create the illusion of movement. See also STOP MOTION.

 

ANSWER PRINT
The first print of a film submitted for approval by a laboratory to a client/customer.

 

ANTI-HALATION
Coating or layer on film to reduce HALATION. See BACKING

 

AP
ANSWER PRINT (abbreviation used primarily in US)

 

APERTURE (1)
The opening of an optical lens system that controls the light transmitted

 

APERTURE (2)
The opening of a camera, printer or projector that defines the image shape and size. See also GATE.

 

APPLICATION
The process of black and white re-development of only the soundtrack area of a colour print film using VISCOUS PROCESSING so that a silver-based image, suitable for the photocells of conventional sound readers, is produced. See also TRACK APPLICATOR, CYAN TRACK, RED READER.

 

AR
ASPECT RATIO

 

ARCHIVAL
That which an archive has chosen to preserve. Often used to mean suitable for long-term preservation

 

ARCHIVE (verb)
Long-term storage of information.

 

ARTEFACT or ARTIFACT
Unwanted effects which are a direct result of some technical limitation. Term commonly used in the context of digital imagery.

 

ARTIFICIAL LIGHT
Light generated by any light source except the sun.

 

ASA
American Standards Association, also, colloquially, a film speed nomenclature system. See DIN.

 

ASC
American Society of Cinematographers.

 

ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange – an archaic 7bit computer character set.

 

ASPECT RATIO
Ratio of width to height (height as unity) of a image. May be applied to camera aperture, mask or gate, or to a display by film projection, or any video or data screen display.

 

ASSEMBLER
A technician who prepares film for a laboratory process such as PRINTING or GRADING/TIMING

 

ATMOSPHERE (sound)
A recording of background sound of a scene for use in the sound mixing process.

 

AUDIO
Sound - used to describe any sound recording or playing equipment, the entire chain, or the sound itself.

 

AUTO A & B
See AUTO-OPTICAL

 

AUTO-CONFORM/ING
Where an EDL file is used to carry out a conform in an on-line edit suite or workstation.

 

AUTO-OPTICAL
A method of printing DISSOLVE (and other) effects from a single roll of negative film on an automatic optical printer.

 

AUTO-SELECTIVE PRINTING
See AUTO-OPTICAL (US term).

 

AVERAGE GRADIENT
A measure of the average slope of the CHARACTERISTIC CURVE of a photographic emulsion between two defined points, not confined to just the straight line portion of the curve (as with GAMMA). Normally used as the abbreviation AG.

 

AZIMUTH (1)
The angle between the slit of a photographic sound head and the film path direction.

 

AZIMUTH (2)
The angle between the magnetic head and the film or tape path direction (video tape).

 

BACK FOCUS
Distance from a lens to its image plane.

 

BACK PROJECTION
Image projection onto the rear of a translucent screen, also a special effect using the technique.

 

BACKING
Anti-halation backing, or any coating on the back or base of a film, sometimes referred to as REMJET.

 

BAFTA
British Academy of Film and Television Arts.

 

BALANCE
Term used to describe the "neutrality" of a colour film or TV image.

 

BALANCE STRIPE
MAGNETIC STRIPE applied to a film on the opposite edge of a film with a magnetic sound track to ensure uniform winding.

 

BANDWIDTH
The amount of data or video information that can be passed in a given time.

 

BASE
The transparent support on which the photographic emulsion of a film is coated.

 

BASE SCRATCH
See CELL SCRATCH

 

BASE SIDE
The BASE side of a piece of film (see also CELL SIDE)

 

BASIC DYES
Dyes used for toning film using mordant dyeing technique, in which the colour resides in the positive ion (cation)

 

BATCH NUMBER
Coating batch code for photographic film.

 

BBC
British Broadcasting Corporation.

 

BEAM SPLITTER
Camera or printer device for separating light or images into two or three beams (usually R,G, & B).

 

BELL & HOWELL TAPE
Punched paper tape for controlling a film printer (has a non-standard punched tape code).

 

BEST FIT CONTRAST
The gradient of the straight line which "best fits" the DLogE (characteristic curve) of a film stock, expressed as the density rise for a LogE increase of 1.00. Sometimes called beta. A measure of film CONTRAST used mostly for colour intermediate films.

 

BETACAM
A family of Sony analogue component VTR systems using a half-inch cassette.

 

BH PERFORATIONS
Bell and Howell Perforations: Type of perforation shape used in 35mm negative and duplicating film stocks. Sometimes referred to as NEGATIVE PERFORATIONS. See also KS PERFORATIONS.

 

BIDIRECTIONAL (PRINTER)
Film printer capable of printing both forwards and backwards.

 

BILATERAL SOUND TRACK
Photographic sound track with a modulation symmetrical about its centre axis. See also UNILATERAL SOUNDTRACK.

 

BILATERAL SOUND TRACK, DOUBLE
Two parallel bilateral sound tracks.

 

BILATERAL SOUND TRACK, SINGLE
One single bilateral sound track image.

 

BILATERAL SOUND TRACK, TRIPLE
Three parallel bilateral sound tracks.

 

BINARY
Mathematical representation of a number to base 2, ie with only two states, 1 and 0; on and off; or high and low - the basis of all digital systems and computing.

 

BINDER
The material carrying the metallic oxides in a magnetic coating

 

BIPACK
Two separate sensitized films running in contact, usually emulsion to emulsion, in a camera, printer or other device, intended for the exposure of one through the other. Normally for the production of two separate colour records (a two strip), one the inverted image of the other. Also DU-PACK (DuPont).

 

BIT
Binary digIT = bit. One bit can define two levels or states, on or off, black or white, 0 or 1 etc.

 

BITC
Burnt-in Timecode. Timecode that is displayed as part of the video image to which it refers.

 

BKS
British Kinematographic Society: original title before the change to BKSTS

 

BKSTS
British Kinematographic, Sound and Television Society

 

BLACK
Incapable of reflecting or transmitting any visible light - a subjective term

 

BLACK AND WHITE
Common term for a greyscale image

 

BLACK LEADER
Film with opaque black film base used for leaders or used for A and B CUTTING. (Term more common in US). See BLACK SPACING, SLUG

 

BLACK SPACING
Film with opaque black film base used for leaders or used for A and B CUTTING. (Term more common in UK). See BLACK LEADER, SLUG.

 

BLEACH (1)
To remove or decolourize the silver image, usually by conversion back to silver salts

 

BLEACH (2)
To remove the visible colour of a dye

 

BLEACH (3)
A solution used to bleach a film image

 

BLIP
Loose term for a SYNC PULSE, a short sound on an optical or magnetic track to be synchronised with a SYNC MARK on a film.

 

BLOOP
A triangular patch (or a punched hole, or hand-painted triangle) used to suppress the noise of a splice in an optical sound track

 

BLOOPING
The act of blooping, especially using blooping ink

 

BLOOPING INK
A dense, fast drying dye for use in making a bloop

 

BLOW-UP
Optical enlargement of a film image from one gauge to another (for example 16mm to 35mm)

 

BLU-RAY
Blu-ray Disc (official abbreviation BD) is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the DVD format.

 

BLUE (1)
One of the three additive primaries

 

BLUE (2)
See LAVENDER. A less common, but still widely used name for EASTMAN Fine Grain Duplicating Film 1365 (Nitrate Base).

 

BLUE BACKING/BLUE SCREEN NEGATIVE
Negative of an action shot against a blue background, as a MASK for combination printing by MATTE or TRAVELLING MATTE. See also GREEN SCREEN.

 

BLUE BACKING/BLUE SCREEN SHOT
Action shot against a blue background, as a MASK for MATTE, TRAVELLING MATTE, or CHROMAKEY effects work. See also GREEN SCREEN.

 

BREAK-DOWN
Separation of a roll of camera original negative film into it's constituent scenes

 

BRIGHTNESS
The luminance of a surface emitting or reflecting light, measured in candelas/sq m

 

BRITTLENESS
Subjective term for fragility and tendency to break of a film, a result of, for instance, the loss of plasticizer or water

 

BS
British Standard, unit of photographic speed in BS units

 

BSI
British Standards Institute

 

BURN-IN (1)
To produce white titles on already exposed film by overexposure or double exposure, usually through A and B ROLL PRINTING

 

BURN-IN (2)
To add time code numerals to a video tape

 

BUS
An internal pathway for sending digital signals from one part of a system to another.

 

BUTT SPLICE
Film JOIN where ends are not overlapped,but butted, usually taped.

 

BUTT WELD
Film JOIN in polyester film where ends are butted together and heat welded.

 

BUZZ TRACK (1)
A test film to determine whether the scanning slit of a projector is correctly aligned

 

BUZZ TRACK (2)
A sound track recorded with local sounds to fill in a gap in a sound track

 

BYTE
A unit of digital data consisting of 8 bits (binary digits). Used as a measure of file size or storage capacity. Multiples are denoted Kilobyte (kB), Megabyte (MB), Gigabyte (GB),Terabyte (TB), Petabyte (PB), Exabyte (EB). However software and computer industries currently use multiples expressed in powers of 2 rather than 10, so that 1 KB is 210 Bytes (= 1024 Bytes), 1 GB is 210 KB (= 1024 KB), and so on, while disk drive manufacturers tend to describe storage capacity in powers of 10, so 1 KB = 1000 Bytes. Thus a 100GB drive has the capacity for 93 GB of files.

 

CAMERA LOG
Record sheet with details of scenes shot on a roll of original negative

 

CAMERA ORIGINAL (FILM)
The original film element exposed in the camera, either a negative, or a reversal positive original

 

CANCELLATION
The result of correctly printing an optical negative soundtrack so that distortion caused by image spread in the original is cancelled.

 

CANDELA
The SI unit of luminous intensity. Defined as the luminous intensity in a given direction of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 × 1012 Hz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 W per steradian. Used in lighting and cinema applications to measure luminance as candela per square metre. See also FOOT-LAMBERT.

 

CAPSTAN
A smooth or toothed drive spindle for film or tape

 

CARBON ARC
Type of lamp using an electric arc between two carbon electrodes to produce an intense light, commonly used in film projectors until the late 1960s. See also XENON ARC.

 

CARTRIDGE
Container holding a roll of film or a continous film loop

 

CASSETTE (1)
A light tight container for a roll of film for attachment to a daylight operating film processor

 

CASSETTE (2)
An audio tape cartridge, or a video tape cartridge

 

CC FILTER
Optically flat Colour Correction filters made of gelatin in RGBCMY and intervals of 0.05 Density (Kodak term)

 

CCD
CHARGE COUPLED DEVICE - a linear or two dimensional array of light sensitive elements. Light is converted to an electrical charge proportional to the brightness falling on each cell.

 

CCIR
Consultative Committee for International Radio, standardising body body for television and radio

 

CEL
Transparent foreground used for animation filming

 

CELL SCRATCH
Scratch on the BASE or CELL side of film (also BASE SCRATCH)

 

CELL SIDE
The BASE side of a piece of film (cell = celluloid, though not used exclusively for cellulose nitrate)

 

CELLULOID
Trade name for cellulose nitrate, occasionally used for all film

 

CELLULOSE ACETATE
Acetate ester of cellulose used as a BASE for film. See also ACETATE.

 

CELLULOSE NITRATE
Plastic formed from nitrated cellulose used as a BASE for film until the early 1950s. See also NITRATE.

 

CHANGEOVER CUES
Visible marks in the corner of the frame to indicate an iminent reel change over between film projectors or telecine. See CUE DOTS.

 

CHARACTERISTIC CURVE
A graph of Log E and Density for a particular film stock

 

CHARGE COUPLED DEVICE
CCD - a type of image sensor used in cameras and scanners

 

CHECKER-BOARD CUTTING
see A and B CUTTING (US term)

 

CHEMICAL TONING
see TONING

 

CHEQUERBOARD (UK) / CHECKERBOARD (USA)
A & B roll printing to avoid images of splices, or to create simple effects such as dissolves. The term is also used (in USA) to describe an A & B PRINT.

 

CHROMA
Television signal component carying colour, also used loosely to mean colour saturation

 

CHROMA SUBSAMPLING
The process of reducing the data rate of a digital video stream by limiting the number of colour information samples compared to the luma or signal. Denoted by a ratio indicating the relative number of samples of luminance, and of two adjacent rows of colour pixels. E.g. 4:2:2 (Rec. 601) or 4:2:0 (MPEG-2).

 

CHROMAKEY
Video special effect combining images with a blue (usually) background with other images. Similar to travelling matte

 

CHROMINANCE
The colour part of a video signal relating to the hue and saturation (not brightness/luminance) of an image.

 

CHROMOGENIC
Production of colour by a chemical process, as in the development of colour film and in certain toning processes

 

CIE
International Commission on Illumination. Developed the first mathematically defined colour space.

 

CINCH MARKS
Scratches caused by excessive tension during the winding up of film

 

CINCHING
Pulling the end of film to tighten the wind of loosely wound film - generally causes cinch marks

 

CINE
Colloquial term for any motion picture practice or equipment

 

CINEMASCOPE
Trade name for an anamorphic widescreen film system

 

CINEMATOGRAPHY
General term for motion picture fim technology

 

CINEX STRIP
A short test print in which a frame from each scene has been exposed with a test exposure. Originally referred to the test printer used to make this test, now used for the test print strip itself.

 

CLAPPER
Hinged arms clapped together and filmed by camera to establish film/sound synchronisation

 

CLAW
Device to pull film through the camera or printer gate intermittently

 

CLEARING BATH
Aqueous solution used in film development to ensure staining reduced to a minimum. The precise chemistry depends on the process

 

CLIP
A general term for any section of a film sequence or scene.

 

Clone
An exact copy, indistinguishable from the original (used of digital files or video).

 

CMY
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, the subtractive primaries, also print grading lights (in Technicolor). Also frequently referred to as YCM.

 

COCKLE
Term to describe the bucking of film caused by uneven shrinkage, resulting in an uneven wind. See SPOKING, EDGE WEAVE

 

COLLIMATED
Of light in a parallel beam, produced by condensing lenses

 

COLORIMETRY
The measurement of colour in numerical terms

 

COLOUR
A general term for the subjective sensation of viewing different wavelengths of visible light. USA COLOR

 

COLOUR ANALYSER
see Analyser, colour grading electronic video device

 

COLOUR BALANCE
Term used to describe the "neutrality" of a colour film or TV image or it's departure from neutral, see also BALANCE

 

COLOUR CONTRAST
The subjective effect of the intensities of two colors. Numerically the log of this ratio

 

COLOUR CORRECTION
Adjustment (by grading) of an off balance print or image to a correct balance

 

COLOUR DEVELOPER
Aqueous solution of a colour developing agent to produce dyes in film emulsions chromagenically

 

COLOUR FILTER
A transparent filter (often gelatin or glass) for selectively absorbing light wavelengths

 

COLOUR MODEL
An theoretical model of how colours can be represented by different colour components, such as Red, Green and Blue (RGB). See also COLOUR SPACE.

 

COLOUR PRINT
A photographic colour positive normally intended for projection

 

COLOUR REVERSAL INTERMEDIATE
An integral masked intermediate colour negative made from a colour negative on Eastman Colour Reversal Intermediate Film

 

COLOUR ROLL
A term used in silent film making, pre 1930. A roll of negative cut and joined in a convenient reel that can be printed to make prints that will all be tinted or toned the same colour. These are not necessarily in the right sequence. A similar technique was used for negatives requiring all the same printer exposure (but no name seems to have survived for these rolls).

 

COLOUR SEPARATIONS
Black and white, monochrome film negatives or positives made through tricolor filters that represent R,G or B records of a scene

 

COLOUR SPACE
A system for describing colour numerically, based on a COLOUR MODEL, typically to define the colour range used by cameras, display systems, film and so on. See also CIE, RGB, XYZ.

 

COLOUR SYSTEM
Trade name, manufacturer's or traditional name of a colour film process or technique.

 

COLOUR TEMPERATURE
A method of describing the colour of a light source, by comparing with the temperature in Kelvin units of a black body radiator

 

COLOURISATION
The addition of colour to a black and white film.

 

COLOURIST
An individual who adjusts or enhances the colour of an image, either photochemically or digitally.

 

COMBINED
Adjective describing any film element that has both picture and optical sound track. See also COMPOSITE and MARRIED.

 

COMBINED PRINT
A film print that has both picture and optical sound track. (This term is the one commonly used in the UK). See also COMPOSITE and MARRIED.

 

COMMAG
Composite Magnetic (print or positive). A magnetic sound track and picture combined together on the same film.

 

COMMENTARY TRACK
A sound track used in the production process with commentary only, commonly used in newsreel and documentary production. See SPEECH TRACK, DIALOGUE TRACK.

 

COMOPT
Combined Optical (print), An optical sound track and picture combined together on the same film.

 

COMPLEMENTARY COLOURS
Colours which when ADDITIVELY mixed form a neutral colour (white, grey, black). The complementary colours of Red, Green and Blue are Cyan, Magenta and Yellow respectively, and vice versa.

 

COMPONENT VIDEO
A video signal in which the picture information is conveyed in three separate channels, e.g. RGB or YCbCr (ie. one luminance and two chrominance channels)

 

COMPOSITE (film)
Adjective describing any film element that has both picture and optical sound track. See also COMBINED and MARRIED.

 

COMPOSITE PRINT
A film print that has both picture and optical sound track. See also COMBINED and MARRIED.

 

COMPOSITE VIDEO
A system in which three colour omponents co-exist in a single signal. E.g. PAL and NTSC.

 

COMPOSITING
Combining images by techniques such as layering, keying, or matting.

 

COMPRESSION (data)
The process of encoding data in such a way as to reduce the number of bits originally needed. Typically used to reduce the data rate of a digital video stream.

 

COMPRESSION RATIO
The ratio of the compressed size to the uncompressed size of digital data.

 

CONCATENATION
The linking together of systems or data in a linear or sequential manner.

 

CONDENSER LENS
A lens, or lens system, able to collimate light, ie. generate a parallel beam

 

CONFORM (verb)
To assemble picture and sound elements to a prepared schedule or EDL in order to create an edited film or video production. May also refer to the process of making a CUT NEGATIVE by visually matching the cuts and joins of the CUTTING COPY. See also MATCHING.

 

CONFORMED NEGATIVE
A CUT NEGATIVE, as opposed to an OVERCUT NEGATIVE

 

CONSERVATION (film)
The processes necessary to ensure the physical survival of the film with minimum degradation

 

CONSERVATION MASTER
Term for a duplicate made primarily for long term archival storage. See PRESERVATION MASTER

 

CONTACT PRINTING
Printing a film by exposing the raw stock in direct contact with the original.

 

CONTINUOUS PRINTING
Printing film by continuous, rather than intermittent, transport of the original and the print. See also STEP PRINTING.

 

CONTINUOUS PROJECTION
Projection by continuous film transport, typically using a mirror or prism system.

 

CONTOURS/ CONTOURING
An unwanted artefact similar to "posterisation" occurring in digital video images when insufficient bit depths or inaccurate processing are used. See also ALIASING.

 

CONTRAST
Relationship between light (highlight) and dark (shadow) areas of a picture, described as high, low or a number (numerically the log of this ratio)

 

CONTROL STRIP
See SENSITOMETRIC STRIP.

 

CONTROL TRACK (film)
A magnetic sound track on a film controlling the distibution of other magnetic tracks to loudspeakers

 

CONTROL TRACK (video)
A linear track recorded onto video tape as a reference for the running speed of a VTR.

 

CORE
A cylinder used as a centre for winding film, usually plastic, originally wood

 

CORNER PINNING
A TRACKING technique for controlling the position and rotation of video/data images by using the corners to define a fixed image position.

 

COUNT-DOWN LEADER
General term for a leader at the HEAD of a film with synchronising marks and count-down numbers. See ACADEMY LEADER.

 

COUNTER
Device for measuring the length of a film, normally by counting sprocket holes. (See also SYNCHRONISER)

 

COUPLER/DYE COUPLER
A chemical that combines with oxidised developing agent to form a dye. (See also CHROMOGENIC)

 

CP FILTER
Colour Printing filters, for use in uncollimated light, in primary colours and increments of 0.025 or 0.05D

 

CRAWLING TITLES
Titles or credits travelling horizontally across the screen

 

CREDITS
Acknowledgements in the titles, normally at beginning or end of a film

 

CREEPING SYNC
A progressive error in synchronization between picture and sound

 

CRI
See COLOUR REVERSAL INTERMEDIATE

 

CROPPING
Cutting off the top or sides of a frame to change the aspect ratio

 

CROSS MODULATION TEST
A test to determine the optimum printing exposure of variable area sound tracks to achieve CANCELLATION

 

CROSSOVER (TEST)
Sensitometric test when converting printing conditions from one batch of film to another

 

CU
Close Up

 

CUE
A signal or mark on a film to actuate an event. See PRINTER CUE.

 

CUE DOTS
Visible marks in the corner of the frame to indicate an iminent reel change over between film projectors or telecine. See CHANGEOVER CUES.

 

CUT
A change from one scene to another

 

CUT NEGATIVE
A roll of negative cut and joined to MATCH / CONFORM with the editors requirements (usually by matching / conforming with the CUTTING COPY or a video version or an EDL, so as to produce a final print).

 

CUTS
Unused film scenes - See OUT-TAKES

 

CUTS AND TRIMS
Portions of scenes left behind after the utilised part is cut into a production, often stored after negative cutting. May, or may not, include OUT-TAKES. See also TRIMS., TRIMS AND OUTS.

 

CUTTING COPY
Laboratory term for the editors cut film, joined by splices and sometimes with crayoned instructions for transitions, effects and other lab work, ready for NEGATIVE CUTTING/MATCHING. See also WORK PRINT)

 

CUTTING FRAMES
Extra frames at start and end of scenes to allow latitude in subsequent fine editing, particularly in animation

 

CYAN
Subtractive primary colour. See MAGENTA/YELLOW.

 

CYAN TRACK
A soundtrack on colour film formed from cyan dye rather than silver, introduced in 2004 to remove the need to re-develop the soundtrack area. Suitable only for RED READER sound heads. See also APPLICATION.

 

D LOG E CURVE
See CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

 

D-1
A standard for component digital SD (Rec. 601) video. It uses4:2:2 standard using 8-bit sampling. The tape is 19 mm (3/4 inch) wide and allows up to 94 minutes to be recorded on a cassette.

 

D-10
A standard for component digital SD (Rec. 601) video. Uses a 1/2 inch beta-type tape cassette. Video is compressed with motion-JPEG to a 50 Mb/s data rate. As used by Sony in its MPEG IMX format.

 

D-11
A standard for component digital HD (Rec. 709) video at 1080 lines per frame. Uses a 1/2 inch Beta-type tape cassette. Video is 3:1:1 chroma subsampled and compressed with motion-JPEG compression to 140 Mbit/s. As used by Sony in its HDCAM format.

 

D-12
A standard for component digital HD (Rec. 709) video at 720 or 1080 lines per frame. Uses a 6.35 mm tape cassette. Video is 4:2:2 chroma subsampled and compressed with DV motion-JPEG compression to 100 Mbit/s. As used by Panasonic in its DVCPRO HD format.

 

D-2
A standard for composite digital SD video. The tape is 19 mm (3/4 inch) wide and allows up to 208 minutes to be recorded on a cassette. Neither cassettes nor recording formats are compatible with D-1.

 

D-3
A standard for composite digital SD video. It uses uncompressed NTSC or PAL encoding sampled at 8 bits. The tape is 1/2 inch wide and allows up to 248 minutes to be recorded on a cassette.

 

D-5
A standard for component digital SD (Rec. 601) video using the same cassette as D3 but recording component signals sampled to ITU-R BT.601 recommendations at 10-bit resolution and recorded uncompressed.

 

D-5 HD
A standard for component digital HD (Rec. 709) video at 720 or 1080 lines per frame. Uses the same 1/2 inch wide tape as D3 and allows up to 124 minutes to be recorded on a cassette. Uses motion-JPEG compression to achieve HD datarates comparable to D-5 SD.

 

D-6
A standard for component digital HD (Rec. 709) video at 1080 lines per frame. It uses 19 mm (3/4 inch) tape. Used in the Philips/Thomson Voodoo Media Recorder.

 

D-7
A standard for component digital SD (Rec. 601) video. Uses a 6.35 mm tape. Video is compressed with DV motion-JPEG to 25 Mb/s or 50 Mb/s data rates. As used by Panasonic in its DVCPRO and DVCPRO50 formats.

 

D-9
A standard for component digital SD (Rec. 601) video. Uses a 1/2 inch VHS-type tape cassette. Video is compressed with DV motion-JPEG to a 50 Mb/s data rate. Also called DIGITAL-S by its creator, JVC.

 

D-CINEMA
DIGITAL CINEMA: Digital distribution and projection of cinema material. Commonly taken to mean cinema comlying with DCI (Digital Cinema Initiatives) recommendations. See also E-Cinema.

 

D, M & E
Dialogue, music and effects: a soundtrack consisting of these elements. See also M & E.

 

DAILIES
First print from a camera negative, often made quickly, or overnight, ready to be viewed the following morning. (USA term). See also RUSHES.

 

DAT
Digital Audio Tape

 

DATA RECORDER
Machine designed to record and replay data on tape or disc.

 

DATE CODE
Manufacturer's code on the film edges to indicate date of manufacture. See also EDGE CODE, STOCK NUMBERS.

 

DAYLIGHT
A colour balance of 5,400K , for "daylight" colour film

 

DCDM
DIGITAL CINEMA DISTRIBUTION MASTER: the set of master files whose function is to provide an interchange standard for Digital Cinema presentations. The DCDM is a series of uncompressed TIFF files, associated uncompressed BWAV sound tracks and subtitling files. None of the files are compressed or encrypted.

 

DCI
Digital Cinema Initiatives: an initiative by the US major motion picture studios to establish an architecture for digital cinema.

 

DCP
DIGITAL CINEMA PACKAGE: a set of files conforming to DCI specifications which contain all the elements needed (images, sound, subtitles etc.) for the projection of a film. The images in a DCP are compressed using JPEG2000 encoding, and it may be ENCRYPTED.

 

DCT (compression)
Discrete Cosine Transform - widely-used as the first stage of compression of digital video pictures.

 

DENSITOMETER
A device for measuring the density of film

 

DENSITY
A measure of the "blackness" of film. D=Log1/Transmission

 

DEPTH OF FIELD
Range of object distances from a camera, at a specific aperture, over which the image is acceptably sharp

 

DEPTH OF FOCUS
Range of image distances from a camera film plane, at a specific aperture, over which the image is acceptably sharp

 

DESENSITIZATION
Treatment of film to reduce the photographic speed or contrast, usually by a chemical solution.

 

DEVELOP
The process of using chemicals to turn a latent image on a film into a visible image.

 

DEVELOPER
The aqueous solution of developing agent used to develop a latent image

 

DIACETATE
Loose term for CELLULOSE ACETATE film base in which approximately two out of every three hydroxyl groups of cellulose have been replaced by acetate groups. Used in early versions of safety film before TRIACETATE base was developed.

 

DIALOGUE TRACK
A sound track used in the production process with voice only, i.e. no music or effects. See SPEECH TRACK, COMMENTARY TRACK.

 

DIAPHRAGM
Iris device for controlling light transmission by a lens.

 

DIAPOSITIVE
A "direct" positive. A camera original film image processed by reversal processing to make a positive image. Term mostly used by French and German manufacturers. See also REVERSAL.

 

DICHROIC
The property of certain crystals or solutions to transmit and reflect band s of different wavelength. In practice a glass filter selectively reflecting, and transmitting wavelengths of light, especially used in beam splitters.

 

DIFFUSE
(Of light) Scattered, non specular.

 

DIFFUSER
Translucent glass or filter to diffuse a specular beam of light

 

DIGITAL BETACAM
A development of the original analogue Betacam video tape recorder which records digitally on a similar cassette format. Colloquially known as Digibeta.

 

DIGITAL CINEMA
See D-CINEMA

 

DIGITAL CINEMA DISTRIBUTION MASTER
See DCDM

 

DIGITAL CINEMA PACKAGE
See DCP

 

DIGITAL FILM NEGATIVE
A film negative made from digital files by a film recorder.

 

DIGITAL FILM RECORDING
A film record produced from digital data.

 

DIGITAL INTERMEDIATE
Any digital video or data file made by scanning a film, or by digital capture, for the purpose of post-production. May be re-recorded back to film, or used to create a digital projection or other display format.

 

DIGITAL SOURCE MASTER
See DSM

 

DIGITAL-S
See D-9

 

DIGITISER
A device which converts an analogue input to a digital representation, e.g. analogue to digital converters (ADCs).

 

DIN
Deutsches Institut für Normung, the German standards organisation, also, colloquially, a film speed nomenclature system

 

DIRECT POSITIVE (1)
A camera original film image processed by reversal processing to make a positive image, i.e. a DIAPOSITIVE or REVERSAL positive.

 

DIRECT POSITIVE/PRINT (2)
A print made on a "direct process film stock", such as Eastman MP Direct Film, by printing from another positive. Direct films produce a monochrome positive images when processed in a negative/positive (i.e. not a reversal film process). Quality is lower than normal duplication techniques and the process is used for making quck low quality access print. See also SLASH PRINT, WORK PRINT, DIRTY DUPE, SLOP PRINT.

 

DIRTY DUPE
Duplicate copy of a WORK PRINT, often made for a sound editor (US term). See SLASH DUPE, SLOP PRINT.

 

DISSOLVE
A gradual transition from one scene to another.

 

DLP
Texas Instruments Inc Digital Light Processing - name given to systems which use DMDs (Digital Micromirror Devices) as the light modulator. DLP Cinema is a digital image projection system

 

DOLBY
The company Dolby Laboratories, Inc. or one of its noise reduction systems.

 

DOPE SHEET
Sheet of instructions for shooting scenes, or a record of scenes shot. See STORY BOARD.

 

DOUBLE BILATERAL SOUND TRACK
Two parallel BILATERAL SOUND TRACKS

 

DOUBLE COATED FILM
Film coated with emulsion on both side of the film base

 

DOUBLE EXPOSURE
Two separate exposures on the same film

 

DOUBLE HEADED
Two reel projection method, with the film image on one reel, sound on separate magnetic sprocketed film. Also used to describe the two elements needed for the projection - the print and a magnetic track. (UK term for DOUBLE SYSTEM).

 

DOUBLE REEL
A roll of film, a unit of film as part of a film programme, usually about 2000ft

 

DOUBLE SYSTEM
US term for DOUBLE HEADED. Also known as DUAL SYSTEM.

 

DOUBLE-SIDED SOUND TRACK
A optical photographic sound film with two tracks, one in one direction, one in the other. See UP AND DOWN tracks.

 

DOWSER
Device for blocking the projector light from the film, originally to prevent nitrate film igniting.

 

DPX
Digital Picture Exchange (DPX) is a common file format for film scanning and DIGITAL INTERMEDIATES, and is an ANSI/SMPTE standard (268M-2003). The density of each colour channel is represented as an uncompressed scale, commonly logarithmic in an attempt to preserve the characteristics of an original camera negative. The DPX file format was originally derived from Kodak Cineon open file format used for digital images generated by its original film scanner.

 

DROP-FRAME / TIMECODE
A method of compensating for the fact that the 525/60 line/field format used with NTSC coding system does not run at exactly 60 fields per second but 59.94, or 29.97 frames per second - a difference of 1:1000.

 

DROPOUT
Short loss of signal in a magnetic recording, due to loss of head contact or faulty tape.

 

DRUM (sound film)
A large diameter cylinder around which optical sound film passes in order to ensure speed stability.

 

DRUM (video)
A precision cylinder in which the record and playback heads are mounted.

 

DRY RUN
A trial camera take without film. See also WALK THROUGH.

 

DSM
DIGITAL SOURCE MASTER: the original material from which a DIGITAL CINEMA production is derived. Unlike the DCDM and DCP, this is not defined by any standards.

 

DTS
In cinema, refers to a system developed by DTS Inc. in which the sound is recorded on a separate CD format disc, with an optical timecode on the film to maintain synchronisation.

 

DTV
Digital Television, any or all digital TV systems

 

DUALATERAL SOUND TRACK
An optical photographic sound track with two identically oriented unilateral variable area tracks side by side

 

DUB/DUBB (1)
The process of recording a sounds, speech, effects etc, in synchonicity with a running film in order to create a film sound track. (DUBB sometimes used in UK, DUB has become the more common spelling generally)

 

DUB/DUBB (2)
A speech track created by studio dubbing.

 

DUB/DUBB (3)
The process of creating a speech track in a different language to the original. See LANGUAGE DUBB

 

DUFAYCOLOR
An ADDITIVE colour film process in which the film stock was exposed through a red, green and blue mosaic RESEAU printed on the BASE side.

 

DUPE/S
A loose term for any duplicate film element.

 

DUPLEX SOUND TRACK
A photographic sound track with two identical unilateral mirror image variable area tracks side by side

 

DUPLICATE
A general term for a copy or reproduction of a film element, often used loosely to mean a duplicate negative.

 

DUPLICATE NEGATIVE
A copy of an original camera negative made by a number of possible routes, though typically via a DUPLICATING POSITIVE. Often used to refer to a b/w negative rather than a colour INTERNEGATIVE.

 

DUPLICATE POSITIVE
A general term for a positive copy of a positive made by a number of possible routes.

 

DUPLICATING POSITIVE
A black and white intermediate positive made from a black and white negative specifically intended for further generation of a duplicate negative. See MASTER POSITIVE. Often referred to a a FINE GRAIN or FINE GRAIN POSITIVE.

 

DUPLICATION
The procedure of making a duplicate film element

 

DUPLITIZED
US term (originally Kodak in origin) for double coated film used for two-colour print making.

 

DV
A digital video tape format using component digital video using motion-JPEG compression at data rates of 25, 50, or 100 Mb/s. It uses 6.35 mm (quarter-inch) wide tape to record 525/60 or 625/50 video for the consumer (DV) and professional markets (Panasonic’s DVCPRO and Sony’s DVCAM). A co-operation between Hitachi, JVC, Sony, Matsushita, Mitsubishi, Philips, Sanyo, Sharp, Thomson and Toshiba,

 

DVC
Digital Video Cassette. Original name for the consumer DV format.

 

DVCAM
Sony’s development of DV using a 15 micron track on a metal oxide tape.

 

DVCPRO
Panasonic’s development of DV using a 18 micron track on 6.35mm (1/4 inch) metal particle tape. Video is compressed with DV motion-JPEG to 25 Mb/s data rate. Has SMPTE designation D-7.

 

DVCPRO 50
Panasonic’s variant of DVCPRO to give enhanced chroma resolution using a 50 Mb/s data rate. Has SMPTE designation D-7.

 

DVCPRO HD
Panasonic’s variant of DVCPRO for use with HDTV. Has SMPTE designation D-12.

 

DVD
DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions.

 

DVD-RAM
Re-recordable DVD. This is a rewritable DVD format with capacities of 2.6 or 5.6 GB. Also used in some camcorders.

 

DVD-VIDEO
A DVD optical disc format with MPEG-2 video compression for recording video on a CD-sized disk, with multi-channel audio, subtitles and copy protection capability.

 

DVE
Acronym for Digital Video Effects (systems).

 

DVTR
Acronym Digital Video Tape Recorder IncludesD1, D2 and D3, Digital Betacam(Digibeta), DV etc etc etc

 

E-CINEMA
A term generally used to describe digital cinema which does not comply with DCI specifications, usually employing lower-specification projection.

 

E.I.
Exposure Index, roughly equivalent to ASA speed rating, originally used at a time when the ASA value for cine film had not been standardized. Currently defined by Kodak as: A measurement of film speed that can be used with an exposure meter to determine the aperture needed for specific lighting conditions. Exposure index figures are applicable to meters marked for ISO or ASA speeds

 

EBU
European Broadcasting Union.

 

EDGE CODE
Manufacturer's markings on the film edges, often used to mean the date of manufacture symbols used by Kodak. Also DATE CODE, STOCK NUMBERS.

 

EDGE NUMBER
Incremental numbers (and letters) placed along a film edge (usually 1ft apart).

 

EDGE WEAVE
Differential shrinkage between the edge and centre of film, resulting in buckled edges. See COCKLE.

 

EDIT
The process of decision and action in assembling the sequence of a film or video programme

 

EDIT SYNC
See LEVEL SYNC

 

EDL
Edit Decision List. A list of the decisions which describe a series of edits. Normally refers to a timecode-based file automatically generated by editing software, using widely adopted standards such as CMX 3400 and 3600.

 

EFFECTS TRACK
A sound track, film or tape, containing special sound effects only. See also SOUND EFFECTS.

 

ELEMENT
The individual components of a film, video or data post-production procedure; e.g. original negative, dupe negative, print etc. Occassionally applied to separate scenes of a production.

 

ELEVATOR
Mechanical device to allow film to be loaded or unloaded from a processor without stopping the transport

 

EMULSION
The light sensitive layer coated onto film base, consisting of a suspension of silver salts in gelatin.

 

ENCRYPTION
The manipulation of data to prevent interpretation by all but those for whom the data is intended. Used in DIGITAL CINEMA to protect the DCP from piracy.

 

END OUT
A reel of film or tape wound so that the end is on the outside of the reel. See also TAIL OUT.

 

END-TO PAPER SECTION
Method of indicating to a printer operator the section of film to be printed, a paper marker is placed in the roll. See also PAPER-TO-PAPER.

 

ENG
Electronic News Gathering: a term to describe the capturing of news material on video rather than film.

 

ERASE
Procedure of removing a previous recording from a tape or magnetic stripe

 

ESTAR
Kodak trade name for their polyester film base

 

ETHERNET
Standard covering the physical and data link layers of local area networks (LANs)

 

EUREKA EU95
Historical proposal for a European 1250 line PAL compatible HDTV broadcasting system

 

EVEN SYNC
See LEVEL SYNC

 

EXCHANGE, FILM
A regional centre used for distrbution, repair and checking of cinema release prints

 

EXCITER LAMP
Lamp used as light source in a photographic sound reproducer in, for instance, a projector.

 

EXPOSURE
The process of subjecting film to a light image. Precisely: The total light energy falling on film, Intensity x time, usually expressed as Log to base 10 of lux x sec

 

EXPOSURE METER
Device for estimating the correct aperture to achieve optimum exposure, also called a light meter

 

f-NUMBER
Relative aperture of a lens opening, focal length divided by diaphragm diameter, usually expressed by the notation f/R where R is the ratio or f-number.

 

FADE (of dye)
Gradual loss of saturation (and sometimes hue) with time

 

FADE (special effect)
A gradual reduction of exposure of film or video to black. See FADE-IN, FADE-OUT.

 

FADE-IN
A gradual reduction of exposure of film or video to black

 

FADE-OUT
A gradual increase of exposure of film or video from black to an image

 

FADER
Shutter mechanism for producing fade-ins or fade-outs during printing

 

FALL OFF
Unevenness in brightness, usually of a projected image towards the edges.

 

FCC
FRAME COUNT CUEING: a system for cueing exposure changes during film printing.

 

FERROTYPING
The result of swollen gelatin emulsion pressing against a surface and taking on the form of that surface.

 

FIAF
Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film

 

FIBRE CHANNEL
A technology for transmitting data between computer devices at data rates of up to 10 Gbps. Commonly uses optical fibre, but data may also be transmitted via coaxial or twisted pair cables.

 

FIELD SEQUENCE
A television frame or picture which uses interlaced scanning, comprising two fields. Each successive frame of component video repeats a complete pattern of two fields and so can be edited to frame boundaries.

 

FILM
A light sensitive emulsion coated on a flexible base

 

FILM BASE
A flexible support on which a photographic emulsion is coated. See also CELL SIDE

 

FILM RECORDING
A film made from a video or data file. Can refer to the original recorded negative or or to a print made from this. This term should always be qualified by the addition of FILM RECORDED NEGATIVE or PRINT FROM FILM RECORDED NEGATIVE. See also RE-RECORDING.

 

FILM SPEED
Sensitivity of film to light, determined numerically by various national standard methods such as ASA, DIN, BS

 

FILMSTRIP
A length of film with still images, used, for example, as a slideshow.

 

FILTER
Transparent material that selectively absorbs wavelengths and alters the colour of light

 

FILTER PACK
A collection of filters used together; usually in film printers.

 

FINAL MIX
A sound track (on any medium -film, tape, magnetic stripe etc) which has been created by mixing several different sound tracks, eg music, effects, foley, speech, over-commentary etc.

 

FINE CUT
A final edit, usually a refinement of a ROUGH CUT.

 

FINE GRAIN
Kodak term for almost all their black and white films made since 1950, as in Eastman Fine Grain Negative, Eastman Fine Grain Positive Films, Eastman Fine Grain Release Print Films etc. Also used colloquially to mean FINE GRAIN POSITIVE.

 

FINE GRAIN POSITIVE
A general term for a black and white intermediate positive made from a black and white negative, usually on a filmstock with a gamma of 0.7. See DUPLICATING POSITIVE.

 

FIRETRAP
A device to prevent burning nitrate film in a projector (or a vault) from igniting other film

 

FIREWIRE
A standard high-speed serial digital interface.

 

FLARE
Scatter of light in an optical system that produces non image forming exposure and reduces contrast

 

FLASH FRAME
A single overexposed negative frame of film, accidental or intentional as a marker when printed

 

FLASHING
The technique of giving print or duplicating film a low overall exposure to reduce contrast. Also known as LATENSIFICATION. See also PRE-FLASHING.

 

FLAT
Low in contrast

 

FLATBED VIEWER
General term for a film editing machine. See MOVIOLA, STEENBECK, KEM.

 

FLICKER
Random or regular variations in screen brightness

 

FLOAT
A periodic instability of a projected image, the result of mechanical imprecisions in camera, printer etc.

 

FLOOD TRACK
A photographic sound track exposed across the entire area as a test of a sound camera or a processor to show the maximum width of the track.

 

FLOP-OVER (1)
Optical special effect in which the printed image is reversed from right to left.

 

FLOP-OVER (2)
Where a piece of film is cut into a reel the wrong way round to correct film geometry, or to reverse the image.

 

FLUTING
Film distortion or cockle where edges are stretched more than centre, also called edgewave

 

FLUTTER
A rapid periodic frequency variation in sound reproduction.

 

FOCAL LENGTH
Distance from lens centre to the point at which an image at infinity is focussed

 

FOCAL PLANE
The plane at 90 degrees to the lens axis at the position at which the image is formed

 

FOCUS
Position or state of the most well-defined image produced by a lens

 

FOG (verb)
Expose film to non image forming light, usually accidentally.

 

FOG LEVEL
The lowest density of a film material where no exposure has occurred

 

FOLEY
Incidental sound effects, doors, leathers, queaks, footsteps recorded separately and post dubbed (after Jack Foley). Also Foley Artist.

 

FOOT
Imperial measure of length, widely used in film industry. 1 ft = 0.3048 m.

 

FOOT-LAMBERT
A unit of luminance, commonly used in the US in lighting and cinema applications. See also CANDELA. 1 fL =3.426 candela per square meter.

 

FOOTAGE COUNT
The length in feet of a film.

 

FOOTAGE NUMBERS
See EDGE NUMBER.

 

FORCED DEVELOPMENT
Development for longer than the usual time to gain speed, usually at the expense of graininess.

 

FORMAT
In film, the combination of gauge, dimensions, perforations etc. Also may refer fo video recording format or digital file format.

 

FPM
Feet per minute, used to descibe film transport speeds in the UK and USA, eg film processors.

 

FPS
Frames per second.

 

FRAME
An individual picture image on a film.

 

FRAME COUNTER
Device for counting frames as a film passes through machinery or on an inspection bench.

 

FRAME LINE
The space between one frame and the next.

 

FRAME RATE
The number of frames exposed, or projected, per second.

 

FRAMESTORE
A solid state video storage, to store complete frames or pictures as separate files.

 

FRAMING
Adjusting the frame position in a projector or printer gate to include all the frame or crop as required. See also OUT OF RACK, RACKING.

 

FREEZE FRAME
Optical printing effect when one frame is repeatedly printed so that the image appears stationary.

 

FRINGE/FRINGING
A defect due to poor registration of component images. Sometimes referred to as Ghosting.

 

FRONT END
General term for all work up to the answer print stage of a film production.

 

FRONT PROJECTION
Image projection onto the front of a screen, also a film background effect using this technique.

 

FX
See SOUND EFFECTS.

 

GAMMA (film)
The gradient, expressed as ratio of density rise for a LogE change of 1.00, of the straight line portion of the DLogE (characteristic curve ) of a film stock. A measure of film CONTRAST used mostly for monochrome films with long straight line curves.

 

GAMMA (television)
The relationship between Log luminance on a monitor to the original scene

 

GAMMA (video and data)
The exponent of the power function used in the gamma correction of a signal (gamma encoding). Also used for the exponent of the inverse power fuction used to obtain a linear light value from a gamma corrected signal (gamma decoding).

 

GAMMA CORRECTION
The process of transforming a linear light intensity signal by a power function to achieve perceptually uniformity.

 

GAMUT
The set of colours which can be represented in a particular COLOUR SPACE or by a particular output device.

 

GATE
The aperture through which a film is exposed or projected; in cameras, printers and projectors

 

GAUGE
Width of film, usually in millimeters

 

GB
See BYTE

 

GEL
Loose colloquial term for a flexible filter

 

GELATIN
Flexible protein matrix used to carry the light sensitive salts and coated onto the film base

 

GENERATION LOSS
Degradation of picture quality resulting from successive printing, transfers or dubbing of film or video

 

GEOMETRY
A general term for the relationship between the image and the physical arrangement of perforations and emulsion and direction of transport, usually for 16mm film (see A or B type)

 

GRADER
The technician responsible for the quality and balance of a film print. See also TIMER (US term).

 

GRADING
The process of controlling and adjusting the overall density and colour balance of a film print. See also TIMING (US term).

 

GRAIN
The physical structure of a film image, seen as clumps of silver or dye

 

GRAININESS
The subjective visual effect of grain in film

 

GRATICULE
A cross pattern on a glass plate to assist alignment in some optical equipment, eg printers

 

GREEN
One of the three additive primaries

 

GREEN FILM
Film fresh from processing which may be difficult to project smoothly

 

GREEN SCREEN NEGATIVE
Action shot against a green background, for combination printing by CHROMAKEY or TRAVELLING MATTE. See also BLUE SCREEN NEGATIVE.

 

GREEN SCREEN SHOT
Action shot against a green background, as a MASK for MATTE, TRAVELLING MATTE, or CHROMAKEY effects work. See also BLUE SCREEN.

 

GREY SCALE
A scale of neutral grey images (usually printed on film or card) used as test material for measuring photographic response.

 

GUI
Graphical User Interface. A means of operating a system through the use of interactive graphics displayed on a screen.

 

GUIDE TRACK
A speech track made as a guide to actors recording the speech later in a studio, originally widely used for post dubbing, later only used where background noise is high.

 

H & D CURVE
See CHARACTERISTIC CURVE. 'Hurter and Driffield'. An old term only used in UK.

 

HALATION
Images caused by the scatter or internal reflection of light within a film

 

HALF FRAME
A frame dimension on 35mm film of 21 x 8mm. (Used in a few rare cameras, implies half Academy, 21 x 16mm). (NOT the same as the half frame in still cameras).

 

HALF-TONE
Describes an image where the tonal differentiation is created by dots, vignettes or ruled lines of different sizes.

 

HALIDE
A metal salt of a halogen (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine).

 

HANDLE/S
A term for the extra frames at head and tail of each scene in an OVERCUT NEGATIVE.

 

HARDENING BATH/HARDENER
A solution of chemicals for hardening film emulsion.

 

HASH MARKS
Cue marks scratched onto release prints in place of 'proper' CUE DOTS

 

HD
Abbreviated version of HDTV.

 

HD-SDI
High Definition Serial Digital Interface: for the transimission of uncompressed digital video signals within television facilities. See also SDI.

 

HDCAM
An HD video recording system from Sony developed from Digital Betacam using 8 bit DCT compression at a data rate of 144 Mb/s. Standardised by SMPTE as D-11.

 

HDCAM SR
Sony's development of HDCAM which is capable of 10 bit 4:4:4 recording at a video bitrate of 440 Mb/s. Commonly used for television programme delivery for a time.

 

HDTV
High Definition Television. A television standard (or set of standards) for High Definition, generally accepted as720-line and upward, with a picture aspect ratio of 16:9. 720x1280 and 1080x1920 are the most common.

 

HEAD (magnetic recording)
Any device that senses or transduces a signal, tape, sound etc.; a transducer

 

HEAD OUT
A reel of film or tape wound so that the HEAD is on the outside, ie opposite of TAIL OUT.

 

HEAD, OF FILM
The front end of a reel film. See also TAIL.

 

HEAT FILTER
A filter, usually glass, for absorbing heat (or infra red radiation).

 

HI ARC
Type of CARBON ARC lamp operating at a highcurrent density.

 

HI CON
High contrast film used for producing high contrast images (US term). See also PROCESS FILM.

 

HIGH BAND
A term used to denote a video tape system capable of broadcast quality, such as High Band U-MATIC.

 

HIGH KEY
A scene in which almost all the tones are high in brightness, opposite of LOW KEY

 

HIGH MAGENTA SOUNDTRACK
A type of re-developed silver soundtrack on a colour print produced from a track negative designed for a CYAN TRACK, used as an interim measure during the change over to cyan tracks and RED READERS.

 

HIGH SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY
The use photography at faster than the conventional frame rate in order to slow down the action. See also SLOW MOTION.

 

HIGHLIGHT
The brightest part of a scene or it's reproduced image

 

HISTOGRAM
A graphical representation of the colour density distribution in an image.

 

HOLD FRAME
See FREEZE FRAME

 

HOLD TAKE
Negative of a scene to be held for later possible use, not selected for rush printing

 

HORSE
A horizontal spindle holding one or several rolls of film

 

HOT SPOT
The bright area of an unevenly illuminated image on, e.g., a projection screen, tv monitor, film print.

 

HUB (data)
Device for connecting more than one network or storage device together.

 

HUB (film)
See CORE

 

HUE
The visible character of a colour as defined by it's position on the visible spectrum or CIE chromaticity diagram

 

HYPERSENSITIVITY
Increasing the speed of camera film by preflashing or chemical methods

 

HYPO
A common term for Sodium thiosulphate, the chemical most commonly used for fixing in photochemical developrnent.

 

HYPO ELIMINATOR
A solution for removing residual fixing agent from film emulsions, to increase the life of the silver image

 

ILA
Image Light Amplifier. Technology developed by Hughes-JVC for video projection. Images are displayed on a CRT with infrared phosphors. The infrared image controls the reflection of the projector light. Also D-ILA.

 

IMAX
Wide-screen motion picture system, employing 70mm film with a 15 perforation 70x46mm frame, run horizontally through camera and projector.

 

IMBIBITION
A mechanical printing method where an image is formed from dye transferred from one film to another, as used in the Dye Transfer Technicolor system.

 

IMMERSION GATE
A printer, telecine or scanner gate where the original film and unexposed stock, are immersed with a liquid in to minimise scratches. The liquid is chosen to have a similar refractive index to the film BASE. See also LIQUID GATE, WET GATE.

 

IN
See INTERNEGATIVE (1)

 

IN RACK
Term for 35mm (usually) film meaning that the frames are correclty spaced a complete frame apart, that is, each frame in 35mm film is exactly 4 perforations from the next. See also OUT OF RACK.

 

INCOMING SCENE
The second scene in a DISSOLVE. See also OUTGOING SCENE.

 

INFRA-RED
Electomagnetic radiation beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, generally experienced as heat. See also ULTRA-VIOLET.

 

INTEGRAL TRIPACK
See TRIPACK

 

INTER-DUPE
A duplicate colour negative derived from an inter-positive. A term used locally by Technicolor (probably).

 

INTERCUTTING
Editing the same or similar scene into several different positions in a story or sequence.

 

INTERLABORATORY SURVEY
A regular survey which used to be carried out by Kodak of world motion picture laboratory processing quality and consistency.

 

INTERLACE/INTERLACED VIDEO
A technique, developed originally for analogue television, of doubling the perceived frame rate of an image. Each frame is constructed from two fields, one comprising the odd lines and the other the even lines of the image.

 

INTERMEDIATE (1)
General term for colour film master positives and negatives on a integrally masked film, but also widely used to mean any intermediate step between a camera original and the final print.

 

INTERMEDIATE (2)
(For colour flm) Any element made on an Kodak Eastman or Fuji Colour Intermediate Film (AVERAGE GRADIENT 1.00). Could be an interpositive or an internegative - the same stock is used for both.

 

INTERMITTENT (film)
Mechanism where a film is moved one frame at a time into the gate of, e.g., a projector and there held stationary.

 

INTERNATIONAL TRACK/VERSION
Term sometimes used to refer to a version of a film which has yet to have commentary or subtitles of a particular language added. This term has also been used with other meanings, such as to refer to a version of a film which includes scenes of a nature not deemed suitable for a local audience.

 

INTERNEGATIVE (1)
A duplicate colour negative film made from a colour interpositive using a colour film with an AVERAGE GRADIENT of 1.00. (e.g.Eastman Colour Intermediate Film).

 

INTERNEGATIVE (2)
A colour negative prepared from a reversal camera original or a print, using a colour film stock with an AVERAGE GRADIENT of 0.6 (e.g.Eastman Colour Internegative Film or a camera negative film). (Less common usage than INTERNEGATIVE(1), and possibly only in UK).

 

INTERPOLATION (spatial - digital imagery)
Estimating a value of a pixel from those of its near neighbours. Used for repositioning, re-sizing a digital image for effect, to change picture format, or to insert lost detail.

 

INTERPOLATION (temporal - digital imagery)
Interpolation between the same point in space on successive frames. Used to provide motion smoothing, speed changes, effects, or repair defects.

 

INTERPOSITIVE (1)
A general term for any positive element used as an intermediate stage, ie not the final print.

 

INTERPOSITIVE (2) often abreviated to IP
A colour positive made from a colour negative using a colour film with an AVERAGE GRADIENT of 1.00. (e.g.Eastman or Fuji Colour Intermediate Film) as an intermediate stage in making a duplicate negative/internegative.

 

INTERTITLE
Titles or captions cut between scenes in silent movies. These were often shot on high contrast print film stocks or LITH film to make negatives, which were then printed to make positives. The positive was then usually printed again to make "negative" images which were then used as prints to be cut into the final film print.

 

INTERTITLE NEGATIVE
The camera negative of an intertitles. Silent period intertitle prints were usually negative images. This confusing term is often applied to the print from the original camera negative, which was cut into the picture negative to mage a white on black intertitle screen image. Rarely seen as usually discarded.

 

IP
See INTERPOSITIVE (2)

 

IPS
Inches per second

 

IRIS
A device used to vary the opening of a lens diaphragm.

 

IRIS WIPE
A wipe effect in the form of a increasing or diminishing circle, ie iris in, or iris out.

 

ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network - allows data to be transmitted over the public telephone network as two channels at 64 Kb/s.

 

ITU-R
International Telecommunications Union, Radiocommunications Sector. A treaty organisation that obtains international agreement on standards for radio and television broadcasting. The ITU-R BT series deals with television. Two important ITU-R recommendations are ITU-R Rec. BT.601 and ITU-R Rec. BT.709 dealing with SD and HDTV respectively. Colloquially these are referenced as Rec. 601 and Rec. 709.

 

Java
A general purpose programming language developed by Sun Microsystems and in use on the World Wide Web.

 

JOG
A facility to move a film or video one frame at a time, or by small increments.

 

JOIN
A splice or edit between two pieces of film or tape. See SPLICE.

 

JOINING TAPE
Adhesive tape used in making BUTT SPLICES/TAPE SPLICES in film or TAPE.

 

JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group (ISO/ITU-T). JPEG is a standard for the data compression (by a factor of bwtween 2 and 100) of still pictures and uses three levels of processing: baseline (most widely used), extended, and lossless encoding.

 

JUMBO ROLL
The widest roll of coated film or tape in the manufacturing process before slitting and perforating

 

JUMP CUT
A sharp edit, or a loss of a section of scene, resulting in a jump in the action.

 

JUNK
Discarded film, usually with images, i.e. grading tests, printing errors used where the content is not relevant term typically used in film laboratories).

 

KELVIN
The SI unit of thermodynamic temperature. Used to describe colour temperature. Unit 'k'.

 

KEM
Type of FLATBED film editor manufactured by KEM in Germany.

 

KEY NUMBERS
See EDGE NUMBERS, FOOTAGE NUMBERS.

 

KEYCODE
A machine-readable bar-code printed along the edge of camera negative film giving key numbers, film type, and offset from a zero-frame reference mark in perforations, used for editing and conforming.

 

KEYSTONE DISTORTION
Image distortion on projection when the projector axis is not at 90 degrees to the screen

 

KINEMACOLOR
A two-colour additive process in which the action is filmed through a rotating filter so that successive frames are exposed through red and green filters in turn. On projection, the print was similarly projected through a rotating colour filter.

 

KINESCOPE
A television image recorded on film. Term used in USA - see TELERECORDING.

 

KODACOLOR
A term used by Eastman Kodak for various colour film types, but most commonly associated with KODACOLOR LENTICULAR film.

 

KS PERFORATIONS
Kodak Standard Perforations: Type of perforation shape used in 35mm print film. See also BH PERFORATIONS.

 

LACE
To thread up a projector, printer, tape recorder or any equipment with film or tape.

 

LACQUER
A coating material to protect film or hide scratches, a varnish or other material.

 

LAD
Laboratory Aim Density, a density value used to control the production of intermediate film materials, digital negatives, and projection prints.

 

LAMBERT
See FOOT-LAMBERT, CANDELA.

 

LANGUAGE DUB/LANGUAGE DUBB
A speech track in a different language to the original.

 

LAP DISSOLVE
Overlapping Dissolve, where two film images overlap as one fades in and the other fades out.

 

LATENSIFICATION (1)
See FLASHING.

 

LATENSIFICATION (2)
The intensification of an under-exposed latent image by controlled fogging before development.

 

LATENT IMAGE
The undeveloped invisible image on photographic film prior to development.

 

LAVENDER
Colloquial name for the Kodak film stock, EASTMAN Fine Grain Duplicating Film 1365 (Nitrate Base),which had a pale blue base, introduced in 1936 for making black and white positives (master positives) and for producing duplicate negatives. Commonly used for any monochrome intermediate master positive of the period.

 

LEADER
The length of film prior to the content, giving identification, protection, count-down and other information.

 

LENS
Optical device for generating an image in a camera, printer or projector.

 

LENS APERTURE
The opening of a lens , expressed as f NUMBER.

 

LENTICULAR
A type of b/w film with rows of cylindrical lenses embossed in the surface of the film base which form small b/w images of a striped colour filter positioned in front of the camera lens. When projected though a similar projection filter, the original colours of the scene are created additively. KODACOLOR lenticular film is the most common type.

 

LEVEL SYNC
Refers to when the synchronisation marks on separate film picture and soundrack elements do not have any sound ADVANCE offset. See also PRINTING SYNC.

 

LIGHT BOX
An illuminated panel for viewing film or control strips.

 

LIGHT VALVE
A device to vary to quantity of light reaching a target, as used in, for instance, a printer or an optical sound camera (especially in VARIABLE DENSITY recording).

 

LINE FILM
Old term for orthochromatic or lithographic film processed to a high contrast for titles or intertitles.

 

Linear (editing)
The process of editing footage that can only be accessed or played in the sequence recorded.

 

LINING UP
Setting up any apparatus, such as a camera, before use.

 

LIP SYNC
Exact correspondence between picture and sound recording, also refers to simultaneous recording technique.

 

LIQUID GATE
A PRINTER, TELECINE, or SCANNER GATE where the original film, or both the original film and unexposed stock, are immersed or coated with a liquid in to minimise scratches. The liquid is chosen to have a similar refractive index to the film BASE.

 

LITH FILM
Lithographic film. Very high contrast sheet film used for titles, given a special development to achieve high densities. Was very occasionally used for high contrast masks and titles negatives in cinematograph gauges.

 

LIVE ACTION
Shots of real action rather than, for instance, animation.

 

LONG FOCUS LENS
Lens with a focal length longer than standard for the format. See TELEPHOTO.

 

LONG SHOT
(LS) Scene showing a general view, from a distance.

 

LOOP
Film joined to make a continuous band, for testing purposes, or printing multiple copies, hence loop printer, loop cabinet etc.

 

LOUDSPEAKER
Transducer converting electrical signals to sound.

 

LOW BAND
A video tape recording system not reaching TV broadcast standards.

 

LOW KEY
Scenes in which most subject tones are dark.

 

LOW-PASS FILTER
Device to attenuate high frequency sound

 

LUMA
Signal carrying gamma corrected luminance information, symbol Y'. Used in combination with colour difference signals, e.g. CB and CR . The transformation of R'G'B' signals to luma and colour difference signals is defined in ITU standards, and is different for SD and HD signals.

 

LUMEN
The SI unit of luminous flux.

 

LUMINANCE
Measure of brightness, linearly proportional to intensity, symbol Y. The CIE Y tristimulus component. In video and computer technology luminance is usually gamma corrected to produce luma Y'. See Y, YUV etc.

 

LUX
The SI unit of illumination, equal to one LUMEN per sq m

 

M & E
See MUSIC AND EFFECTS.

 

M AND D
See MASTERS AND DUPES.

 

M AND T
See MUTE AND TRACK.

 

MAGAZINE
Light proof container for film.

 

MAGENTA
Subtractive primary colour. See CYAN/YELLOW.

 

MAGNETIC SOUND TRACK / MAG TRACK
Magnetic sound recording film, consisting of perforated film coated with metal oxide.

 

MAGNETIC STRIPE
A magnetic track applied to the soundtrack area of a film, either during manufacture or after processing, to allow the recording of a MAGNETIC SOUNDTRACK. See also BALANCE TRACK.

 

MAGOPT
A motion picture film print with both optical and magnetic sound tracks (usually of the same track) on the one film.

 

MAIN TITLE
The front (usually) section of a film with titles and credits.

 

MAKE-UP
Assembly of the various elements of a film for printing (a Technicolor term?)

 

MALTESE CROSS
Mechanism for producing intermittent movement in a camera or projector.

 

MARRIED PRINT
A film print with picture and synchronised sound, See COMBINED PRINT & COMPOSITE PRINT. (This term is the prefered BKSTS term.)

 

MARRYING-UP
Assemly and preparation of film elements for printing to make a married print.

 

MASK (1)
A film element whose image is used to modify the image on another film element (usually the original negative when combined in register, see OVERLAY). Used for MATTE effects, and contrast and saturation changes for restoration.

 

MASK (2)
A frame to restrict the dimensions of an aperture in a camera, printer or projector.

 

MASK (INNER)
A mask MASK (2) located behind the camera (or printer) lens, used to create vignettes or shaped images.

 

MASKING (COLOUR)
Using a mask MASK (1) to modify colour saturation or hue of a film image (e.g. for correcting fading).

 

MASKING (CONTRAST)
Using a mask MASK(1) to alter the contrast of a film (e.g. for correcting fading).

 

MASKING (INTEGRAL)
An image created during processing from unused coloured couplers within the dye layers of an integral tripack colour film to correct unwanted dye absorbtions. This causes the typical orange colour of colour negatives and intermediates, and cannot be used on prints.

 

MASKING (PRINTING)
A general term for using a MASK (1) to combine (usually in contact) with another film element negative to make a new element.

 

MASKING (PROJECTION)
A black border to a screen that limits the area of the projected image

 

MASTER (1)
A general term used by, for instance, archives to indicate the best image quality element available (of a title) and therefore conserved more carefully and with greater restrictions on use than other elements.

 

MASTER (2)
A general term for a film element used as the start of a special sequence of printing.

 

MASTER (3)
A specific term used in some circumstances for a camera reversal colour film used for printing and never itself projected, e.g. Ektachrome Commercial Film. (UK laboratory term) See REVERSAL MASTER.

 

MASTER AND DUPES
M & D. All the elements of a feature film (UK term)

 

MASTER POSITIVE
An intermediate positive made from a negative specifically intended for further generation of a duplicate negative. May be used in some circumstances to refer to b/w films only.

 

MATCH DISSOLVE
A dissolve where an object is unchanged but the background changes.

 

MATCHED NEGATIVE
Alternative name for a CUT NEGATIVE.

 

MATCHING
The process of making a CUT NEGATIVE by visually matching the cuts and joins of the CUTTING COPY. A cut negatives is sometimes then called a MATCHED NEGATIVE. (UK terms) See CONFORM.

 

MATRIX (pl MATRICES)
Film (usually positive separation records) with images (usually in relief gelatin) on specialized "wash-off" film stocks, processed in specialized tanning developers, and used in the dye transfer imbibition print processes, in particular Technicolor.

 

MATT
A surface with a diffuse (non specular) reflection

 

MATTE
A completely opaque high contrast MASK (1) image used as an OVERLAY to prevent any exposure in the masked area in order to create special effects (e.g travelling matte and green or blue screen shots). Usually made on a special high contrast and high density film stock.

 

MATTE BOX
A lens shade to hold filters or to obscure a part of the image area.

 

METADATA
Data about data. E.g. Data about the video and audio but not the video or audio essence itself, used for labelling, finding data, classification, record keeping. Metadata on analogue systems includes time code, frame numbers etc

 

MICROFILM
Photographic record of documents, newspapers etc. usually on unperforated 35 or 16mm film made for storage and access.

 

MICRON
1 µm, 0.001mm or 10-6m

 

MIRED
MIcro REciprocal Degree. A unit of colour temperature.

 

MIX (1)
An audio track mixed from more than one element, or the process of doing this. See PRE-MIX, FINAL MIX.

 

MIX (2)
Another term for DISSOLVE (UK term).

 

MIX /MIXING
General term applied to combining elements of sound or picture.

 

MLS
Medium Long Shot

 

MODULATION (sound track)
The variation in area or density in an OPTICAL SOUND TRACK.

 

MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION
MTF: a measure of performance of an optical system, based on its ability to reproduce a pattern of black and white bars at different spatial frequencies.

 

MOIRÉ
Visual interference patterns formed by combinations of rasters, mosaics, or half tones.

 

MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT
Light of effectively one wavelength eg as produced by sodium discharge lamp.

 

MONOCHROME
An image created from a single colour, usually taken to mean a black and white image.

 

MORDANT DYE TONING
Old method of replacing silver images with basic dyes mordanted with silver salts.

 

MOSAIC
A pattern of red,green,and blue filters on film to create an additive colour system (eg DUFAYCOLOR)

 

MOTOR CUE
See CUE DOT.

 

MOVIOLA
A film editing machine. Trade name, widely used for all editors. See FLATBED VIEWER.

 

MP3
Colloquial term for MPEG 1 Layer 3 audio compression standard.

 

MPEG
Moving Picture Experts Group. This an international working group on standards for compression, decompression, and coding moving picture. Commonly used standards are MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4.

 

MPEG-7
A multimedia content description standard (a metadata standard, rather than an encoding standard).

 

MPT
MASTER POSITIVE TRACK: an optical postive track made from an optical negative track. Sometimes called TRACK MASTER POSITIVE

 

MULTI-ROLL PRINTING
A and B, or more, roll printing. See A and B PRINTING.

 

MULTI-TRACK
Magnetic recorder/recording having four or more parallel tracks on 35mm magnetic film.

 

MULTIPLEXER
Device to enable images from several sources to be transferred to film or video.

 

MUSIC AND EFFECTS
M & E. A sound track without the speech or commentary, usually refers to a magnetic tape.

 

MUSIC-TRACK
Audio track of music only.

 

MUTE (2)
In a film laboratory this refers to a reel of negative film without its associated sound track. (UK term)

 

MUTE AND TRACK
Often marked on cans, means both original negative (MUTE (2)) and optical track negative are present. (UK term) See also ACTION AND SOUND, PICTURE AND TRACK.

 

MUTE(1)
A general term for a film which has no sound (though not usually applied to pre-sound era films where the term SILENT is used).

 

MYLAR
3M Trade name for their polyester film base

 

MYLAR TAPE
SPLICING TAPE (US term).

 

NAS
Network-attached storage. Computer data storage connected to a network providing data access to various clients on the network.

 

ND / ND FILTER
See NEUTRAL DENSITY

 

NEG-POS
Refers to a film procduction process employing NEGATIVE and POSITIVE copies, rather than REVERSAL technology.

 

NEGATIVE
Film image in reverse tones, high densities correspond to high brightness.

 

NEGATIVE CUTTING
The process of cutting and splicing together negative film to make a programme, using visual matching or frame numbers located manually or automatically.

 

NEGATIVE DIRT
White marks on a print from dirt and scratches on the negative from which it was made. (Common in US) See PRINTED-IN, SCRATCHES or SPARKLE.

 

NEGATIVE MATCHING
The process of cutting and splicing together negative film to match an editors CUTTING COPY usually by visual frame matching

 

NEGATIVE PERFORATIONS
See BH PERFORATIONS.

 

NEUTRAL DENSITY
Grey neutral colour transparent filter used to reduce exposure.

 

NEWSREEL
A regular cinema magazine news programme

 

NEWTON'S RINGS
Optical interference patterns caused by two surfaces in less than perfect contact. Sometimes seen as a printing defect in film.

 

NG
No Good, a laboratory term meaning faulty, must be redone.

 

NITRATE
Common term for film using cellulose nitrate as the BASE.

 

NOISE
Non image irregular level fluctuations of an image or sound signal. All analogue video signals contain random noise, and film "noise" can be from film grain. Digital noise may be high frequency information and is difficult to tell apart from the wanted signal, and therefore complicates the compression process.

 

NON-DROP-FRAME
Timecode that does not use DROP FRAME.

 

NON-LINEAR EDITING
File-based system where editing can be performed in a non-linear sequence - not the sequence of the original material. See also OFF-LINE EDITING.

 

NOTCH
Shallow notch cut along the edge of a film to trigger the change of printing exposure in a film printing machine.

 

NTSC
National Television System Committee. Generally used to refer to the composite video encoding standard mostly used in North America and Japan. NTSC systems use 525/59.94 scanning, although this is not part of the standard.

 

NUMBER BOARD
See SLATE.

 

OFF-LINE EDITING
Editing using low resolution copies of the source material in order to produce an EDL to which the full quality originals can then be conformed.

 

OFF-SCALE
Outside the range of printing lights of a normal printer.

 

OFFSET
(For sound film) The separation, usually defined by the number of frames, between a point on the film sound track and the corresponding picture image for correct synchronization. See also ADVANCE.

 

OHP
OverHead Projector

 

ON-LINE EDITING
Production of the complete, final edit performed at full programme quality. May be based on an EDL made OFF-LINE.

 

OPEN REEL
A tape transport system with separate feed and take up, not enclosed in a cassette. See also REEL TO REEL.

 

OPTICAL AXIS
Axis from centre of the lens at right angles to the lens plane.

 

OPTICAL PRINTING
Printing of film with a printer that uses a camera to capture the image from a projector via a lens. Allows for special effects and manipulation such as resizing, See also CONTACT PRINTING.

 

OPTICAL SOUND RECORDING
An optical sound track negative produced in an optical SOUND CAMERA.

 

OPTICAL SOUND TRACK
Photographic sound track produced on a film by the modulation of a light beam, printed to make a positive image, and read by a photosensitive device. See also SOUND NEGATIVE.

 

OPTICAL TRACK NEGATIVE
A negative optical film sound track recorded on an optical film SOUND CAMERA, either directly from microphones (pre-1955 approx), or later from MAGNETIC TRACKS, or most recently from a digital system. See SOUIND NEGATIVE, more commonly used in UK.

 

OPTICAL TRACK POSITIVE
A positive optical film sound track, printed from a OPTICAL TRACK NEGATIVE. See SOUND POSITIVE, more commonly used in UK.

 

OPTICALS
General term for special effects made on an optical printer.

 

ORIGINAL
The film element exposed in the camera, the first generation of image.

 

ORTHO / ORTHOCHROMATIC
Film sensitive to Blue and Green light only.

 

OUT OF CONTROL
A term for a film process or control strip whose density readings are outside control limits.

 

OUT OF FRAME
Term to indicate where adjacent frames in 35mm (usually) film are not separated by the correct number of perforations at a SPLICE so that the frame position changes. Also used when the projected image is not correctly positioned vertically on the screen so that the FRAME LINE is visible. (US term).

 

OUT OF RACK
Term to indicate where adjacent frames in 35mm (usually) film are not separated by the correct number of perforations at a SPLICE so that the frame position changes. Also used when the projected image is not correctly positioned vertically on the screen so that the FRAME LINE is visible. (UK term) See also IN RACK, ROLL (2).

 

OUT OF SYNC
Sound and picture not correctly synchronised.

 

OUT-GOING SCENE
The first scene of a dissolve. See also INCOMING SCENE.

 

OUT-TAKE
Alternative shots of scenes that were not used in the final edit .

 

OVERCRANKING
Filming at a slightly higher speed than normal to slow action down, derives from the era of hand-cranked cameras, but still in use.

 

OVERCUT (negative)
A cut negative where each scene is a fixed number of frames longer at both the beginning(head) and the end (tail), usually by 4 to 20 frames. A technique used to avoid handling damage during negative cutting, and/or to avoid splices on 16mm or Technicsope negatives being printed as images. The extras frames, called HANDLES are either not printed or, in digital post-production, removed from the frame sequence.

 

OVERLAP
Extending the sound track into the next scene/reel to improve continuity.

 

OVERLAY (1)
A film element used as one of a pair of film elements used in OVERLAY PRINTING.

 

OVERLAY (2)
The foreground image or cel of an animation (not a film element).

 

OVERLAY PRINTING
Superimposing one film image on another, so as to print two films together as if they were a single image. The overlay could be a MASK, a MATTE or TITLE NEGATIVE.

 

OVERLENGTH
Adjective describing an OVERCUT negative with HANDLES.

 

OVERMODULATE
When the optical sound input signal is too great an amplitude for the for the system to handle.

 

PAL
Phase Alternate Line. A composite video encoding standard mostly used in Europe. Most PAL systems use 625/50 scanning although this is not part of the standard.

 

PAN
To swivel a camera horizontally during filming.

 

PAN / PANCHROMATIC
Of a film stock, sensitive to all wavelengths in the visible spectrum

 

PANEL (PRINTER)
A film printer with the film path on a flat panel layout, often bidirectional.

 

PANORAMA
A wide image, also a trade name of several wide screen systems of the 1950's and 60's.

 

PAPER-TO END SECTION
Method of indicating to a printer operator the section of film to be printed, by placing a paper marker in the reel.

 

PAPER-TO-PAPER SECTION
Method of indicating to a printer operator the section of film to be printed, by placing two paper markers in the reel.

 

PARTICLE TRANSFER ROLLER
Device/roller with a special tacky coating that removes dust particles from film. Commonly called PTR.

 

PATCH
A transparent piece of film used to repair a tear or break.

 

PEEL ROLL / PEELED ROLL
A roll created by winding a number of separate lengths of film onto a single roll without joining together.

 

PEG ANIMATION
Animation shot by locating the sequences of artwork on registration pins.

 

PEG BAR
The registration pins used for peg animation.

 

PERCHLOROETHYLENE/PERC
Solvent used for cleaning film and for WET GATE.

 

PERFORATED SCREEN
A cinema projection screen perforated with small holes so that the sound from loudspeakers placed behind the screen is unimpeded.

 

PERFORATIONS
The holes in film to permit transport. See also BH PERFORATIONS, KS PERFORATIONS, SPROCKET HOLES.

 

PERSISTENCE OF VISION
A characteristic of the human visual system whereby a rapid series of intermittent images is perceived as continuous.

 

PET
Polyethylene terephthalate, a plastic used for film base, usuallly referred to as polyester.

 

PHOSPHOR
A substance emitting light when irradiated by an electron beam, used in cathode ray television screens.

 

PHOTOCHEMISTRY
Chemical reactions which proceed with the absorption of light, thus used to describe the underlying principle of pre-digital photography.

 

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOUND
See OPTICAL SOUND

 

PHOTOMETER
Instrument for measuring luminous intensity, at printer gates, screens, or for exposure determination

 

PHOTOMETRIC FILTER
Filter for raising or lowering the colour temperature of light suitable for the film in use. The effect is measured using the MIRED scale.

 

PICTURE AND TRACK
Master mute negative and matching negative sound track. See also ACTION AND SOUND, MUTE AND TRACK.

 

PILOT PIN
See PIN.

 

PILOT TONE
A tone recorded on audio tape in a system which synchronises camera with an audio tape recorder.

 

PIN / REGISTER PIN
Camera, printer or scanner device which engages in a film perforation in the gate in order to fix the film position during exposure.

 

PINHOLE
A defect on a negative in the form of a small clear (low density) spot, usually the result of faulty processing or manufacture.

 

PITCH (FILM)
The distance between successive points on a film, eg sprocket to sprocket

 

PIXEL (or PEL)
A shortened version of ‘Picture cell’ or ‘Picture element’. The name given to one sample (or set of colour samples) of picture information. The smallest element on a RASTER display. A picture cell with specified colour and/or intensity

 

PIXELATION
The effect where individual pixels or larger blocks of the same colour are apparent to a viewer. Can be caused for instance by poor reception of a digital video stream.

 

PIXILATION
An animation technique in which the illusion of continuous, real movement of three-dimensional objects, often people, is broken and/or made to move unevenly or jerkily through the use of stop-action cinematography (single frame animation) or by printing only selected frames from the continuously-exposed negative.

 

PLATE
A still photograph used as a background in special effects.

 

PLATEN
A surface used to support animation cels and materials.

 

PLATTER
Part of a continuous film projection system, and hence used to mean an entire feature, plus trailers and commercials, spliced together on one roll for projection.

 

POINT
See PRINTER POINT

 

POLYESTER
Polyethylene terephthalate, a plastic used for film base.

 

POSITIVE
An image in which the light (less opaque) areas correspond to light areas in the subject, and the dark (more opaque) areas correspond to the shadow areas in the subject

 

POST PRODUCTION
A general term generally used to cover any of the production process of a film or a television programme subsequent to the original shooting and sound recording.

 

POST SYNC
Post Synchronisation: the process of recording dialogue after filming and synchronising it with the original photography (UK term). See ADR.

 

POSTERIZATION
Banding or lack of continuous tones in an image. A gradual or smooth tonal transition in an original image appears as an abrupt change from one tone to another.

 

PRE-FLASHING
FLASHING of print stocks to reduce contrast.

 

PRE-HARDENER/HARDENER
A hardening solution used as a first process to prepare for a high temperature film process.

 

PRE-MIX (1)
The process of playing all sound material from different souces (for instance FOLEY, SFX, MUSIC, ATMOSPHERE, VOICE-OVER) synchronously as a roughly mixed single track to assess the sound mixing needed.

 

PRE-MIX (2)
The sound element resulting from the PRE-MIX process.

 

PRE-RECORDED
Sound material for a programme that is already recorded.

 

PRE-ROLL
The time taken by camera, projector, telecine to get up to speed. The process of getting up to speed.

 

PREBATH
The first solution of a process, usually a solution for softening REM JET backing on colour film.

 

PRESERVATION (FILM)
The practices necessary to ensure permanent accessibility to the image content of a film.

 

PRESERVATION MASTER
see CONSERVATION MASTER

 

PRESSURE PLATE
That part of a printer, camera or projector that holds the film flat in the gate

 

PREVIEW
A first look, also a special presentation of a feature film prior to premiere or release.

 

PRIMARY COLOURS
Three colours capable of mixing additively or combining subtractively to reproduce all other colours. See ADDITIVE COLOUR/SUBTRACTIVE COLOUR.

 

PRIME LENS
A photographic lens whose focal length is fixed.

 

PRINT (1)
A photographic copy of a film with a positive image, usually made from a negative, and usually intended for projection.

 

PRINT (2)
Loose term for the process of making a copy of a film using a film printer

 

PRINT-THROUGH (1)
A test procedure of printing a control strip on to print stock and measuring the sensitometric response.

 

PRINT-THROUGH (2)
Unwanted transfer of signal on a magnetic tape from adjacent windings.

 

PRINT-THROUGH (3)
Edge codes from previous generations printed through to the current copy.

 

PRINTED-IN
Description of image defects such as SCRATCHES or SPARKLE copied during printing from a previous generation. See NEGATIVE DIRT.

 

PRINTER
A device for exposing an image on one film onto another.

 

PRINTER CUE
Mark on a film to trigger the change of printing exposure in a film printing machine. See also RF CUE.

 

PRINTER LIGHT
See PRINTER POINT

 

PRINTER POINT
A unit of printing light control. In modern printers one point is 0.025LogE, and nominally covers a 50 point scale

 

PRINTER TAPE
Paper tape with punched holes to indicate printing lights and cues. See PUNCHED TAPE.

 

PRINTING SYNC
Refers to when the synchronisation marks on separate film picture and soundrack elements have a sound ADVANCE offset. See also LEVEL SYNC.

 

PROCESS / PROCESSING
The photochemical procedure incorporating the development of the latent image and the subsequent stabilisation stages.

 

PROCESS FILM
High contrast film used for producing high contrast images. See also HI CON.

 

PROCESS SHOT
Loose term for a special effect of separate background and foreground shots combined.

 

PROCESSOR
Equipment for processing, washing and drying film.

 

PRODUCTION AUDIO
Sync sound, or any other sort of wild track or room tone recorded at the shoot. The term is used in sound editing to distinguish between added backgrounds and effects, and those from the actual shoot. (US term)

 

PRODUCTION DUPE
Duplicate negative made for multiple release printing. (UK term)

 

PROGRESSIVE SCAN
A method of displaying or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. See also INTERLACED VIDEO.

 

PROJECTOR
Apparatus for presenting motion picture images on a screen.

 

PROTECTION MASTER (1)
Black and white positives representing the red, green and blue elements of the image, made by printing from camera original colour negatives as long term protection or insurance against loss damage or fading of the original negative. Usually made on specialized panchromatic separation film processed to a Gamma of 1.00. See SEPARATION MASTER.

 

PROTECTION MASTER (2)
Black and white positives representing the red, green and blue elements of the image, made by printing from colour separation negatives (either from camera original separation negatives from a three-strip camera, or from a sequential frame colour negative, or from any other separation negatives). Usually made by printing onto a print film stock developed to a gamma of 1.00.

 

PROTECTION MASTER (3)
General term for a master copy made as a long term protection or insurance against loss damage or fading of the original.

 

PSF
A method of constructing a video frame from two interlaced fields formed from the odd and even lines of the same original frame (often written pSf, as in 24pSf)

 

PTR
see PARTICLE TRANSFER ROLLER.

 

PULL-BACK
A technique in printing film in which the master is partly rewound in order to reprint a section of film.

 

PULL-DOWN
The operation of moving film from one frame to another in a camera, printer or projector.

 

PUNCHED TAPE
Paper tape with punched holes to indicate printing lights and cues. See PRINTER TAPE.

 

PUSH-PULL TRACK
Optical sound track consisting of two tracks of opposite phase, either two half width tracks within the normal track area, or two full width tracks. Used as a noise reduction technique in recording and post-production.

 

QUADRAPHONIC
A four channel sound system.

 

RACK
Term for the alignment from frame to frame of 35mm film, see also IN RACK

 

RACKING
See FRAMING.

 

RAID
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. A storage technology that provides increased reliability and performance by combining multiple disk drive components into a logical unit.

 

RAIN
A multitude of short vertical scratches on film,usually caused by CINCHING.

 

RASTER
The scanned line structure of a TV screen.

 

RAW STOCK
Colloquial term for unexposed film.

 

RB
Same as NG, No Good. Used mostly by Technicolor

 

RE-COMBINED NEGATIVE (or POSITIVE)
A colour negative (or positive) made by printing colour separations or protection masters through R, G & B filters in register onto TRIPACK colour intermediate film stock.

 

RE-RECORDING (1)
Any film element made from a video or data file. Can refer to a negative or to the print made from a negative. See also FILM RECORDING

 

RE-RECORDING (2)
Any film sound track element made on a optical sound recording camera, usually from a magnentic original. See also SOUND RECORDING .

 

REAL TIME
Keeping pace with the events in the "real" world. At normal speed.

 

REAR PROJECTION
Projection onto the rear of a screen, viewed from the front.

 

REC. 601, REC. 709
ITU-R Recommendations BT.601 and BT.709 for SD and HDTV television. See ITU.

 

RECIPROCITY LAW
The inverse relationship between the intensity and duration of exposure that determines the reaction of light-sensitive material in a photographic emulstion.

 

RECIPROCITY LAW FAILURE
A divergence from the RECIPROCITY LAW by photographic emulsions at very high or low intensities.

 

RECONSTRUCTION
The editorial procedure of reassembling a version of a film production to an authoritative original version.

 

RED
One of the three additive primaries.

 

RED MASTER (1)
A local term for a conservation master where the silver image is replaced by silver sulphide to increase longevity, OR a duplicating stock made by Kodak in the 1930's with a brownish image.

 

RED MASTER (2)
B/w pan duplicating film stock made by Kodak in the 1930's with a brownish image due to the development process at that time.

 

RED READER
Optical soundtrack reader on a film projector using a red LED light source suitable for reading CYAN TRACKS.

 

REDUCTION
Mixing multitrack master sound tapes to make a single tape for production.

 

REDUCTION PRINTING
Reducing the image size by OPTICAL PRINTING, eg 35mm to 16mm.

 

REEL
A flanged hub holding film.

 

REEL
A roll of film, a unit of film as part of a film programme, conventionally about 1000 ft/300 m for 35mm film, or more commonly in projection, 2000 ft/ 600 m.

 

REEL TO REEL
Separate supply and take up reels, of a film or tape path, see also OPEN REEL.

 

REFRACTION
Deflection of a light path when passing from one medium to another.

 

REGION CODING
DVDs and Blu-ray discs can be region-coded so as only to play in a particular region (as defined in the player). DVD and BD regions are different.

 

REGISTER PINS
See PINS.

 

REGISTER/REGISTRATION
To cause two or more images to align exactly.

 

REHALOGENATION
A process of reforming the SILVER HALIDES after DEVELOPING to silver, used in some colour film processes.

 

RELEASE PRINT
Film print made for cinema presentation.

 

REM JET
A removable BACKING on film intended to minimise halation. Short for "removable jet black carbon".

 

RESEAU
The mosaic of R,G,and B filters printed on DUFAYCOLOR film.

 

RESOLUTION
The ability of a reproduction system to resolve details. A measure of the finest detail that can be seen, or resolved, in an image.

 

RESOLUTION INDEPENDENT
A term used to describe the notion of equipment that can operate at more than one resolution. Many television devices are designed to operate at a single resolution. Computers can handle files of almost any size so, when used to handle images, are called ‘resolution independent’.

 

RESOLVING POWER
Resolution of a reproduction system expressed numerically, sometimes in lines per mm

 

RESTORATION
The process of compensating for loss, damage and degradation by returning a work of art, an image or artefact to close to it's original content.

 

RETAKE
To photograph a scene again, usually due to an error the first time.

 

RETARD ACTION
Special effect of slowing action by repeat printing of frames (US term).

 

RETICULATION
Distortion, cracks and wrinkles on film emulsion caused by sharp temperature changes during processing. Also caused by severe differential shrinkage between the emulsion and base.

 

REVERSAL (FILM)
Film designed for REVERSAL PROCESSING.

 

REVERSAL EXPOSURE
The exposure of film during REVERSAL PROCESSING in order to "reverse" the image, and produce a positive .

 

REVERSAL MASTER
A camera reversal colour film used for printing and not intended for projection.

 

REVERSAL PRINT
A positive film image made from a REVERSAL film exposed in a camera or by the process of printing from another positive image using REVERSAL film or DIRECT film.

 

REVERSAL PROCESS
A film process that produces a positive image directly, using two developer stages.

 

REVERSE ACTION
An optical effect when the action runs backwards.

 

RF CUE/RF TAB
Metal foil reflective to radio frequency attached to the edge of a film used as film PRINTER CUE.

 

RGB (1)
A COLOUR MODEL based on Red, Green and Blue light.

 

RGB (2)
Abbreviation for the red, green and blue signals, the primary colours for both analysis and synthesis of television images (and the analysis process of modern colour films). Video signals should be written as R', G', and B' to indicate that they are GAMMA corrected.

 

RGB (3)
The Red, Green and Blue PRINTER POINTS used when GRADING (TIMING) a scene.

 

ROCK AND ROLL
Moving a sound track and picture backwards and forwards in sync to locate edit points. See also SCRUB.

 

ROLL (1)
A loose term for a reel or length of film, usually a term used for film on a core rather than a spool.

 

ROLL (2)
The result of slippage on a film printer or telecine where registration has been lost, seen as a vertical movement as the image moves OUT OF RACK.

 

ROLLING TITLE
Title or captions moving from bottom to top on the screen .

 

ROPING
Film damage indentations caused by film running off a sprocket drive, also called RUN-OFF.

 

ROSTRUM CAMMERA
A camera mounted vertically over a platen or graphics, for complex titles or animation.

 

ROTARY PRINTER
A continuous motion contact printer.

 

ROUGH CUT
A first edit that may later be refined by a FINE CUT.

 

RUBBER NUMBERS
Edge or footage numbers applied after processing by a letterpress printing process.

 

RUN OFF
See ROPING.

 

RUN OUT
Any piece of film after the tail leader as a protection for the reel.

 

RUN UP
Length of film on the front of a reel to allow the projector to reach a stable speed.

 

RUNSPEED
Speed at which a film is intended to be played, generally in frames per second. See also SPEED.

 

RUSHES
First print from a camera negative, often made quickly, or overnight, ready to be viewed the following morning. (UK term, see DAILIES, US term).

 

RUSHES REPORT
Written report from a grader for the cameraman, describing the negative and rushes quality.

 

SAFE AREA
The area of picture or frame into which it is safe to place picture, graphics or text so that it will not be masked on viewing. In TV production, the area of the picture expected to be shown on most domestic cathode ray TV screens.

 

SAFELIGHT
A light source with a filter to protect a film from fogging but allow the operator to see.

 

SAFETY BASE
Any non cellulose nitrate film base.

 

SAMPLE PRINT
A print made as a sample of a bulk production of release prints.

 

SAMPLING
Sampling is the process of defining the levels into which analogue variables are separated in order to convert them into digital data. In the case of images pixel resolution defines unit of area, and bit depth defines the units of luminance. Several standards exist for television e.g. 625/50 and 525/60 television is ITUR BT.601, and ITU-R BT.709 specifies sampling for some HD formats. There are no standards for data.

 

SAN
Storage Area Network. A "network" that allows applications direct access to shared storage. A SAN is not networking in the conventional sense.

 

SANDWICHING
Two image films in register with a print raw stock in a contact printer.

 

SATURATION (COLOUR)
The spectral purity of a colour, the degree of difference between grey and a colour.

 

SCANNER
Device for capturing an image as a digital signal. Film scanners may differ from TELECINE machines in having higher resolution and bit depth, slower scanning speed, and no ability to perform adjustments to settings during a scan, although the technologies are converging.

 

SCAVENGER
A processing solution for removing damaging chemicals from a film emulsion

 

SCRATCH
Abrasion of film, either of the base material or the gelatin emulsion.

 

SCREEN (FILM)
The white or silver surface on which a picture is projected for viewing.

 

SCROLLING
The continuous movement of text or graphics across a screen.

 

SCRUB
Moving a sound track and picture backwards and forwards in sync to locate edit points. See also ROCK AND ROLL.

 

SD
Short form for SDTV.

 

SDI
See SERIAL DIGITAL INTERFACE.

 

SDTV
Standard Definition Television. A digital television system in which the quality is approximately equivalent to that of analogue 525/60 and 625/50 NTSC and PAL systems.

 

SE
SUCCESSIVE EXPOSURE

 

SECOND NEGATIVE
A negative take that is not rush printed.

 

SECTION PRINT
A print of a part of a roll of film.

 

SENSITOMETER
Device for exposing a film SENSITOMETRIC STRIP to a precise set of levels.

 

SENSITOMETRIC STRIP
Strip of film exposed to precise set of levels for exposure and processing control. See also STEP WEDGE, CONTROL STRIP.

 

SENSITOMETRY
Study of the effect of light on film, the relationship between exposure and density

 

SEPARATION (1)
The procedure of using a tricolor filter to make a SEPARATION NEGATIVE or POSITIVE.

 

SEPARATION (2)
A general term for a photographic record of red, green or blue components of a scene – sometimes termed Blue, Green or Red separations or, in Technicolor terminology, Yellow, Magenta or Cyan Negative or Positives.

 

SEPARATION MASTER
See PROTECTION MASTER, SEPARATION POSITIVE

 

SEPARATION NEGATIVE
A negative photographic record of red, green or blue components of a scene – individually termed Blue, Green or Red separations (or in Technicolor terminology, Yellow, Magenta or Cyan Negatives). May also refer to two-colour separations, e.g. Blue/Cyan and Orange.

 

SEPARATION POSITIVE
A positive photographic record of red, green or blue components of a scene – individually termed Blue, Green or Red separations (or in Technicolor terminology, Yellow, Magenta or Cyan Positives or PROTECTION MASTERS).

 

SEPMAG
A print projection system in which the sound is held on a separate magnetic film element. Normally projected using DOUBLE HEADED projection or telecine. (UK term)

 

SEPOPT
Separate Optical, a term for separate optical sound track and negative or print. See also SEPPIC.

 

SEPPIC
Separate Picture, a term used to describe a film held as two separate elements, picture and sound. This terms seems to be unrelated to SEPMAG, SEPOPT, COMMAG etc. (Not a common term). See also M & T (Mute and Track), and A & S (Action and Sound).

 

SEQUENTIAL FRAME
Used principally for animation in Technicolor, where the red, green and blue element of each frame is recorded in sequence on a single b/w film (rather than on three separate rolls of film as in live action photography). Also applies to colour systems such as KINEMACOLOR. Also referred to as SUCCESSIVE FRAME. SUCCESSIVE EXPOSURE.

 

SERIAL DIGITAL INTERFACE
A family of SMPTE standards for digital video interfaces. Commonly used for Rec. 601 component digital signals carried on 75 Ω coaxial cables with BNC connectors.

 

SERVER (FILE)
A computer system which serves information such as programs and files to users on the network. A single computer may have several server programs running concurrently.

 

SERVER (VIDEO)
A storage system that provides audio and video storage for a network of clients, usually based on digital disk storage.

 

SET
An artificial scene constructed in a studio or stage.

 

SFX
Either SOUND EFFECTS or SPECIAL EFFECTS.

 

SHOOT
Colloquial term for operating a camera.

 

SHORT END
A piece of unexposed film left at the end of a roll in a camera printer, often removed before processing to use for short scenes.

 

SHOT
A single operation of a camera. See TAKE.

 

SHOULDER
The upper part above the straight portion of the CHARACTERISTIC CURVE of a film showing the response to high exposures.

 

SHOW PRINT / SHOW COPY
A selected carefully produced print, or a corrected answer print.

 

SHRINKAGE (FILM)
Reduction of dimensions of a film due to ageing.

 

SHUTTER
The part of a camera which controls the length of exposure.

 

SHUTTLE
Play a film or video forward and backwards to search, often at an accelerated pace.

 

SI
International System of Units based on the metric system.

 

SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO
The relationship between unwanted noise and wanted signal. In video, noise has a grain-like appearance. Usually expressed in dB.

 

SILENT (1)
An adjective describing a film element (or a silent film programme) that has no associated audio track.

 

SILENT (2)
A film made with no soundtrack, usually pre-1930.

 

SILVER
A lustrous white, ductile, malleable metallic element (Ag) which photochemical photography and cinematography rely on. Light sensitive silver salts are used for image capture in photographic film.

 

SILVER HALIDE
A compound formed from silver and one of the halogens (generally chlorine, bromine or iodine) used as the light sensitive constituent of photographic emulsions.

 

SINGLE SYSTEM
The recording film and sound directly onto a single film, either with an optical soundtrack or, where the film has a MAGNETIC STRIPE, a magnetic soundtrack.

 

SKIP FRAME
Optical effect in which frames are omitted regularly in order to speed up the action.

 

SKIVINGS
Fine slivers of film created by the slitting process during the manufacture of film, or after processing.

 

SLASH DUPE
Black and white (usually) dupe neg made cheaply as a rough record. Or a black and white diapositive made from a CUTTING COPY on Eastman MP Direct film, or a colour print on a colour reversal film.

 

SLASH PRINT
Any quickly and cheaply made print, often on Eastman MP Direct Film, see DIRECT PRINT.

 

SLATE
A board, usually black, marked with scene and shot details, filmed at the beginning (or occasionally at the end) of a TAKE.

 

SLIDE
A transparent still film image used for projection.

 

SLIT / SLITTING
Cutting film during manufacture or after processing to produce the final film width

 

SLO-MO
Colloquial term for SLOW MOTION.

 

SLOP PRINT
Duplicate copy of a WORK PRINT, often made for a sound editor (US term). See SLASH PRINT, DIRTY DUPE.

 

SLOPE
Steepness of a curve or graph, as in the CHARACTERISTIC CURVE for a film, where the slope is equivalent to GAMMA.

 

SLOW MOTION
Operating a camera faster than normal in order to slow down motion. Generally not as fast as HIGH SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY.

 

SLUG
Section of clear film cut into a negative to correct synchronization problems, or to replace missing picture frames. May also refer to BLACK LEADER/SPACING.

 

SMPE
Society of Motion Picture Engineers, original name, USA

 

SMPTE
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, USA

 

SNOW
Random noise interference on a TV screen. Occasionally used also for severe SPARKLE on film.

 

SOFT EDGE
A diffuse edge to detail, or to a matte or wipe edge, (may be intentional or not).

 

SOFT FOCUS
Blurred image produced by a soft focus lens, producing a veiled effect.

 

SOLARISATION
A positive image in which the tone is partly reversed, ie. light areas made dark, either deliberately or by accident .

 

SOUND ADVANCE
See ADVANCE.

 

SOUND CAMERA (1)
Device to record a sound signal on to film in order to produce an OPTICAL SOUNDTRACK negative.

 

SOUND CAMERA (2)
Colloquial term for a film camera capable of recording picture and sound together.

 

SOUND EFFECTS
SFX or FX. Effects produced for a film or TV production, often artificially created in a sound effects studio. See also EFFECTS TRACK.

 

SOUND GATE
The part of a printer where a negative optical track is exposed onto the print stock.

 

SOUND HEAD
The the optical or magnetic sound track reader on a reproducer or projector.

 

SOUND NEGATIVE
A negative optical film sound track recorded on an optical film SOUND CAMERA, either directly from microphones (pre-1955 approx), or later from MAGNETIC TRACKS, or most recently from a digital system. See OPTICAL TRACK NEGATIVE, more commonly used in US.

 

SOUND POSITIVE / PRINT (1)
A positive optical film sound track, printed from a SOUND NEGATIVE. See OPTICAL TRACK POSITIVE, more commonly used in US.

 

SOUND POSITIVE / PRINT (2)
Loose term for a film print with both picture and sound track, easily confused with SOUND POSITIVE/PRINT (1).

 

SOUND PROJECTOR
Film projector with a SOUND HEAD (commonly used for amateur film projectors).

 

SOUND TRACK (1)
A general term for any optical sound image, or magnetic track, magnetic stripe on a film.

 

SOUND TRACK (2)
A general term for the sound content of a film.

 

SOUND-ON-FILM
General term for a combined image and sound on a film, usually a print. Also used in early years of sound film as a contrast to Vitaphone and other systems that were "Sound on disc"

 

SPACING
Film, usually black, opaque white or clear, inserted into a roll for any reason. Occasionally JUNK film, i.e.discarded film with images, is used.

 

SPARKLE
Transient white marks on a positive film caused by dust on the negative it was printed from. See NEGATIVE DIRT.

 

SPECIAL EFFECTS
General term for an illusion or distortion of time or reality, in film or video.

 

SPECTRUM
In optics, the continuous range of visible wavelengths of light.

 

SPEECH TRACK
A sound track used in the production process with voice only, ie no music or effects. See also DIALOGUE TRACK, COMMENTARY TRACK.

 

SPEED (FILM)
General term for the RUNSPEED in frames per second, or feet/metres per second of cameras, printers and projectors.

 

SPEED (SENSITIVITY)
Numerical value defining the sensitivity to light of a film emulsion.

 

SPLICE
A join in a length of film (or MAGNETIC TRACK of TAPE).

 

SPLICING TAPE
Adhesive tape used in making BUTT SPLICES/TAPE SPLICES in film or TAPE. See also MYLAR TAPE.

 

SPLIT SCREEN
Optical effect of two or more separate images within a single frame

 

SPOKING
Distortion in a roll of film so that the roll appears angular, not round, usually caused by differential shrinkage between EMULSION and BASE.

 

SPOOL
Flanged film roll holder for projection.

 

SPOOL (Verb)
To wind up onto a reel, core or spool.

 

SPROCKET
A tooth or a toothed drum or wheel used to drive or transport PERFORATED film.

 

SPROCKET HOLES
The perforations in film and MAGNETIC TRACKS.

 

SQUEEGEE
Flexible wiper blade for wiping away liquid.

 

SQUEEZED
Loose term for an image with ANAMORPHIC compession.

 

ST
SOUND TRACK.

 

STAR FILTER
Filters that produces star pattern effects on images of light sources

 

STARBURST
An effect of a rotating star increasing in size inserted as a short transition between scenes

 

STATIC
High electrostatic voltages, the result of friction, that fog or expose unprocessed film.

 

STATIC MARKS/TREES
Images, often treelike or spidery, caused by static electricity.

 

STEENBECK
Type of FLATBED film editor manufactured by STEENBECK in Germany.

 

STEP PRINTING
Film printing frame by frame using an intermittent mechanism whereby each frame is held stationary in the printer gate during exposure. See also CONTINUOUS PRINTING.

 

STEP WEDGE
Loose term for SENSITOMETRIC STRIP.

 

STEREO
Colloquial term for stereophonic or stereoscopic.

 

STEREOPHONIC
Of sound reproduction involving at least two channels giving the impression of direction and spatial distribution.

 

STEREOSCOPIC
Of image reproduction where pairs of images presented separately to the viewer's left and right eye give the illusion of three dimensional depth.

 

STEREOSCOPIC PAIR
Two images that correspond to the left and right eye images for a stereoscopic reproduction system. For film, these may be together on a single film, or on two separate film reels.

 

STILL FRAME
See FREEZE FRAME.

 

STOCK
A general term for any any cinematographic film, often unexposed.

 

STOCK NUMBERS
Term for data on the edge of a film, usually codes for the type of film. Also used to mean EDGE NUMBERS.

 

STOCK SHOT
A library shot commonly used and reused.

 

STOP FRAME
See FREEZE FRAME.

 

STOP MOTION
ANIMATION technique in which a camera is operated manually one frame at a time.

 

STORY BOARD
A series of still pictures or cartoons representing each scene of a film or video.

 

STRETCH PRINTING
Optical printing effect in which frames are repeated regularly in order to slow the action down

 

STRIPE
See MAGNETIC STRIPE.

 

STRIPING
The process of applying a MAGNETIC STRIPE to film.

 

SUBBING LAYER
A coating applied to the BASE of film during manufacture to allow the emulsion layer to adhere. Sometimes refers to other layers, such as antistatic layers, in a film.

 

SUBSTRATE
Alternative term for SUBBING LAYER, also used for any film BASE material.

 

SUBTITLE
A title at the bottom of a motion picture frame usually to translate the sound track language, or for the hard of hearing.

 

SUBTRACTIVE COLOUR
Colour created by mixing together dyes, paints etc. of different colours (usually Cyan, Magenta and Yellow) so that each colour absorbs (subtracts) some parts of the SPECTRUM. See also ADDITIVE COLOUR.

 

SUBTRACTIVE SYNTHESIS (COLOUR)
The creation of colour by mixing together dyes, paints etc. of different colours (usually Cyan, Magenta and Yellow) so that each colour absorbs (subtracts) some parts of the SPECTRUM. See also ADDITIVE SYNTHESIS.

 

SUCCESSIVE EXPOSURE
As SEQUENTIAL FRAME (US term). Abbreviation SE.

 

SUCCESSIVE FRAME
See SEQUENTIAL FRAME.

 

SURROUND SOUND
A general term for sound reproduction in which the listener is surrounded by sound from at least four channels.

 

SWEETENING
A general term for improving sound quality and matching it precisely to a film image.

 

SYNC
See SYNCHRONISATION.

 

SYNC MARK
A mark, usually X, on one film frame to indicate synchronisity with a similar mark or a SYNC PULSE/BLIP on a soundtrack.

 

SYNC PULSE
A short sound on an optical or magnetic track to be synchronised with a SYNC MARK on a film. See BLIP.

 

SYNCHRONISATION
The process of aligning any separate sound track with a picture image.

 

SYNCHRONISER
Device for running two or more film and/or sound track films at once and at the same rate.

 

SYNTHESIS (PRINTING)
The process of reproducing a colour image from the ANALYSIS records.

 

T-STOP
Measure of actual light transmission through a lens at varying apertures.

 

TABLE 3
Table 3 of the ATSC Digital Television Standard A/53, Annex A, summarises the many picture formats allowed for Digital TV transmission in the USA. Any one of these may be compressed and transmitted. An DTV receiver must be able to display pictures from any of these formats. There are 23 different formats in the table with some 18 for HDTV.

 

TABS
Colloquial term for RF CUES.

 

TAIL
The end of a roll of film. See also HEAD.

 

TAIL OUT
A reel of film or tape wound so that the end is on the outside of the reel. See also END OUT, HEAD OUT.

 

TAKE
A scene filmed in a single shot without stopping the camera. There may be multiple takes filmed for any scene. See SHOT

 

TAKE-UP
The part of a piece of film or tape equipment which winds up the film/tape into a roll.

 

TAPE (1)
Unperforated magnetic sound or video recording material.

 

TAPE (2)
See JOINING TAPE/SPLICING TAPE.

 

TAPE SPLICE
SPLICE made with SPLICING TAPE.

 

TAPE-TO-FILM RECORDING
A film record produced from a video tape (Analogue or Digital).

 

TELECINE
Equipment for (or the act of) transferring film (and soundtracks) to video, originally used for direct TV broadcast, more recently for recording on videotape. Often abbreviated to TK.

 

TELEPHOTO LENS
A camera lens with a long focal length.

 

TELERECORDING (1)
A method of capturing a TV or video image on film by filming a monitor (with a fast pull-down camera). UK term, see KINESCOPE, US term.

 

TELERECORDING (2)
A print from a TELERECORDING NEGATIVE.

 

TELERECORDING NEGATIVE
A film negative made by TELERECORDING.

 

TEMP DUB
A temporary audio mix made before the final mix often using temporary music, effects and narration, etc. (US term)

 

TEST FILM
Specially made film with images for testing, for instance, projector, printer, scanner, film characteristics.

 

THAW
A return to action after a freeze frame effect.

 

THREAD
See LACE.

 

THREE PERF / 3-PERF
System in which 35mm film is exposed in a camera with 3-perf PULL-DOWN, that is where the film is advanced by three instead of the usual four perforations for each frame, and with a wide ASPECT RATIO, so that 25% less film is used.

 

THREE STRIP
A colour system using three separate colour separation negative elements, ie Red, Green and Blue records on separate black and white films. Notably used in the Technicolor three strip system.

 

THREE-COLOUR
Any colour system using either three ADDITIVE or three SUBTRACTIVE colour elements.

 

THROW
Distance from a projector lens to the screen.

 

TIME LAPSE
Film or video recording with a controlled delay between frames, used to greatly speed up the action.

 

TIMER
See GRADER, (US term).

 

TIMING
See GRADING. (US term).

 

TINT /TINTING /TINTED
Black and white print film coloured by dyeing the film base or the gelatin with colour dye. See also TONE.

 

TITLE NEGATIVE
A negative film element with titles. May be conventional images, computer graphics, effects negatives, or an OVERLAY to be used with a background picture negative.

 

TK
See TELECINE.

 

TOE
The lower part below the straight portion of the CHARACTERISTIC CURVE of a film showing the residual minimum density with no exposure.

 

TONE/TONING
Black and white print film in which the silver image is converted to a coloured image by a chemical process. See also TINT.

 

TONING BATH/TONER
An aqueous solution for TONING black and white film.

 

TRACK (1)
A general term for SOUNDTRACK.

 

TRACK (2)
As a digital term, refers to any of various tracks (image, sound, subtitle, etc.) in a moving image file.

 

TRACK APPLICATOR
Device for applying a viscous developer solution in a bead or stripe to an optical sound track print. See APPLICATION.

 

TRACK MASTER POSITIVE
See MPT

 

TRACK NEGATIVE
A film with a negative optical sound track only. See SOUND NEGATIVE, OPTICAL TRACK NEGATIVE.

 

TRACKING (IMAGE)
Following a defined point, or points, in a series of pictures in a clip. It can be applied to control picture moving for special effect, removal of film weave and unsteadiness, damage repair, replacing moving objects etc.

 

TRAVELLING MATTE (1)
A film SPECIAL EFFECT created by printing a moving foreground action from one source with background from another.

 

TRAVELLING MATTE (2)
The MASK element used to separate the foreground from the background, made from a green or blue screen negative, in order to create a TRAVELLING MATTE effect.

 

TRIACETATE
Loose term for the common form of CELLULOSE ACETATE film base in which nearly all hydroxyl groups of cellulose have been replaced by acetate groups. See also DIACETATE.

 

TRICHLOROETHYLENE
Solvent used for cleaning film, now no longer used for health reasons.

 

TRICOLOR FILTERS
A set of three colour filters for exposing black and white separation negatives or positives.

 

TRIMS
Portions of scenes left behind after the utilised part is cut into a production. See also CUTS & TRIMS.

 

TRIMS AND OUTS
Portions of scenes and out-takes left behind after the utilised part is cut into a production, often stored after negative cutting. See also TRIMS., CUTS AND TRIMS.

 

TRIPACK
A colour film with three separate Red, Green, and Blue sensitive layers on a single base. Sometimes called an integral tripack.

 

TRIPLE BILATERAL SOUND TRACK
Three parallel BILATERAL SOUND TRACKS.

 

TTL
Through The Lens: method of determining exposure by reading the light level through the imaging lens of the camera.

 

TWO PERF / 2-PERF
System in which 35mm film is exposed in a camera with 2-perf PULL-DOWN, that is where the film is advanced by two instead of the usual four perforations for each frame, and with a wide ASPECT RATIO, so that 50% less film is used.

 

TWO STRIP
A colour system using two separate colour separation negative elements, usually Orange and Green-blue records on separate black and white films.

 

TWO-COLOUR
Any colour system using either two ADDITIVE or two SUBTRACTIVE colour elements.

 

TYPE A
Refers to colour film balanced for 3400K scene illumination

 

TYPE B
Refers to colour film balanced for 3200K scene illumination

 

TYPE D
Refers to colour film balanced for 5400K or similar scene illumination, equivalent to daylight

 

U-MATIC
Video tape system developed by Sony using 3/4 inch tape in cassettes.

 

ULTRA-VIOLET
Electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths just shorter than the visible spectrum, immediately next to violet light. See also INFRA-RED.

 

ULTRASONIC CLEANER
A device for cleaning film using ultrasonically induced cavitation in a solvent.

 

ULTRSONIC SPLICER
Device which makes a welded join in POLYESTER film by using ultrasound to fuse the overlapping ends of two pieces of film together.

 

UN
Short for UNISSUED, an unissued newsreel or edition.

 

UNDER-CRANKED
A film shot at less than normal speed, in order to produce a speeded up effect on projection, or sometimes in order to achieve acceptable exposure in low light conditions.

 

UNIDIRECTIONAL
In one directional only, usually referring to film printers.

 

UNILATERAL SOUND TRACK
An optical photographic sound track, one single sided asymmetric variable area, ie. modulated on one side only.

 

UNSQUEEZED
The process of displaying an anamorphic image in uncompressed form, by projection or printing.

 

UP-AND-DOWN TRACKS
A 35mm photographic sound film with two tracks, one running in each direction on either side of the film.

 

UP-REZING/UP-RESING
Increasing the number of pixels used to represent an image by interpolating between existing pixels to create new ones – typically used to improve the visual appearance of an SDTV image transferred/recorded to film, or converted to HDTV. The process does not increase the resolution of the image.

 

VARIABLE AREA TRACK
Uniform density optical film sound track in which the image width varies with the sound modulation.

 

VARIABLE DENSITY TRACK
Uniform width optical film sound track in which the image density varies with the sound modulation.

 

VIEWFINDER
Optical device for viewing an image, on a camera or printer.

 

VIGNETTE / VIGNETTING
An image in a diffuse oval or round surround.

 

VINEGAR SYNDROME
Decomposition of cellulose acetate film base over time producing acetic acid.

 

VISCOUS PROCESSING
Film processing using surface applied viscous solutions. See also APPLICATION.

 

VOICE TRACK
Any sound track with voices, without other music or effects. See also SPEECH TRACK/DIALOGUE TRACK/COMMENTARY TRACK.

 

VOICE-OVER / TRACK
See COMMENTARY TRACK.

 

VTR
Video Tape Recorder

 

WALK THROUGH
A scene played though without filming. See also DRY RUN.

 

WEAVE
Lateral movement of film in projection, printing or camera causing side to side unsteadiness.

 

WEDGE
Loose term for SENSITOMETRIC STRIP. See also STEP WEDGE.

 

WET GATE
A printer, telecine or scanner gate where the original film, or both the original film and unexposed stock, are immersed or coated with a liquid in to minimise scratches. The liquid is chosen to have a similar refractive index to the film BASE. See also LIQUID GATE.

 

WET PRINTING
Contact or optical printing using a WET GATE.

 

WHIP PAN
A rapid PAN in which the image is blurred and indistinct.

 

WIDESCREEN (1)
General term for any ASPECT RATIO greater than Academy 1.33:1 (4:3).

 

WIDESCREEN (2)
A term used for a projection ASPECT RATIO of 1.85:1, as opposed to any other wide aspect ratio format.

 

WIDESCREEN (TV)
A TV picture that has an aspect ratio wider than the ‘normal’ 4:3 - usually 16:9 - while still using the normal SD video. 16:9 is also the aspect ratio used for HDTV.

 

WILD SHOOTING
Picture shot without synchronised sound.

 

WILD TRACK
Sound recorded without synchronised picture.

 

WIPE
A scene transition where one image replaces another by a boundary moving across the frame.

 

WORK PRINT
Term used by editors fo a CUTTING COPY, or a print from a cutting copy (see SLASH DUPE).

 

WRAPAROUND
The degree of any close contact of film or tape around a capstan, drum, sprocket wheel or other drive system.

 

WRATTEN FILTER
A Kodak optical filter for camera or printer, identified by a number, e.g. Wratten 25.

 

WYSIWYG
What You See Is What You Get. Usually, but not always, referring to the accuracy of a screen display in showing how the final result will look.

 

X-AXIS
The horizontal axis of a graph. See also Y-AXIS, Z-AXIS.

 

XENON ARC
An arc lamp which uses xenon gas at high pressure to produce an intense white light. Commonly used in film projectors since the phasing out of CARBON ARCs.

 

XYZ
A wide GAMUT COLOUR SPACE defined by CIE, and specified for use in DIGITAL CINEMA applications.

 

Y
The symbol for linear-light luminance, the CIE Y tristimulus component. Often carelessly used for luma Y'.

 

Y-AXIS
The vertical axis of a graph. See X-AXIS, Z-AXIS.

 

Y, CB, CR
The luma and colour difference signals of digital component video. CB and CR are the colour difference signals (B'-Y') and (R'-Y') scaled and offset for digital distribution. The scaling factors are different for SD and HD signals.

 

Y'
The luma component of a video signal.

 

Y', (R'-Y'), (B'-Y')
These are the analogue LUMA, Y', and colour difference signals (R'-Y') and (B'-Y') of component video. Y' is the gamma-corrected luminance information or luma. The colour information signals are the differences between a colour and luma, red minus luma and blue minus luma, and are derived from the original RGB source (eg a camera or telecine). All components are gamma corrected which is denoted by the prime.

 

Y', PB, PR
The luma and colour difference signals of analogue component video. PB and PR are the colour difference signals (B'-Y') and (R'-Y') scaled to the same excursion as Y' for transmission.

 

Y'UV
Luma and two colour difference signals scaled for encoding into a composite video signal. Often incorrectly used as YUV.

 

YCM
Yellow, Cyan, Magenta, the subtractive primaries, also print grading lights (in Technicolor). Also referred to as CMY.

 

YELLOW
A subtractive primary colour. See CYAN/MAGENTA

 

YUV
Shorthand commonly – but incorrectly – used to describe analogue luma and colour difference signals in various component video systems. The term seems to have become used simply because YUV is easier to remember than accurate technical terms. See Y'UV/ Y', PB, PR/ Y, CB, CR

 

Z-AXIS
The other horizontal axis of a three dimensional graph. See X-AXIS, Y-AXIS.

 

ZERO-CUT
Using A & B CUTTING to avoid 16mm splices being seen on the print.

 

ZOOM
The visual effect resulting from varying the focal length of a zoom lens during filming.

 

ZOOM LENS
Lens having a variable focal length.

 

16:9
See Widescreen (TV)

 

24p
Refers to 24 frames-per-second, progressive scan, the frame rate of sound motion picture film, and one of the rates allowed for transmission in the DVB and ATSC television standards so that they can show film without needing any frame-rate change.

 

3:2 Pull-down
Method used to map the 24 fps of motion picture film onto the 30 fps (60 fields) of 525-line NTSC TV.

 

A & S
ACTION AND SOUND. See MUTE AND TRACK

 

A and B CUT NEGATIVE
A CUT NEGATIVE film made by A and B CUTTING for printing by A and B PRINTING.

 

A and B CUTTING
A method of assembling negative film for printing in two (or more, ie. C, D, E etc.) separate rolls to permit special effects, such as dissolves, in 16mm and 35mm film, or to hide splices in 16mm film. Scenes are cut with alternating BLACK SPACING. Also called CHECKERBOARD cutting in the USA.

 

A and B PRINT
A print made by A & B PRINTING from an A and B CUT NEGATIVE (called CHECKERBOARD print in the USA).

 

A and B PRINTING
The technique of printing A and B CUT NEGATIVES. The rolls are printed in sequence with the two starts synchronized to produce the final edited print. See also MULTI-ROLL PRINTING.

 

A and B ROLL (PROJECTION)
A dual film projection technique where image film with no soundtrack is projected in projector while another uses sound track on film. See also DOUBLE HEADED.

 

A and B ROLLS (C, D and so on)
The rolls of cut negative used for A and B PRINTING /MULTIROLL PRINTING/MULTI-ROLL PRINTING.

 

A and B WINDING/S
The two forms, or geometries, of winding used for rolls of 16mm, or other single side perforated film. A WIND film unwinds clockwise with the perforations nearest the observer and the emulsion side in, B WIND film unwinds clockwise with the perforation away from the observer and the emulsion side in. Standard SMPTE 75M.

 

A or B TYPE
Terms used to indicate the geometry of a 16mm film: in A type films the image is correct when viewed through the emulsion, in B type it is correct when viewed through the base.

 

A-D STRIP
Acid Detection Strip - A-D Strips are a proprietary brand of dye-coated paper strips that detect and measure the severity of acetate film deterioration, a.k.a. VINEGAR SYNDROME, in film collections.

 

A/B
See A and B CUTTING

 

A/D or ADC
Analogue to digital conversion (of signals) = Digitisation or quantisation.

 

ACADEMY
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, AMPAS (USA), also a general terms for the set of standards that define the camera and projection gate or mask dimensions for the ACADEMY FORMAT

 

ACADEMY APERTURE
GATE aperture of a 35mm motion picture camera or projector with dimension as specified in the ACADEMY FORMAT.

 

ACADEMY CURVE
A standard sound equalisation curve for pre-1975 OPTICAL SOUNDTRACKS, first standardised in 1938.

 

ACADEMY FORMAT
AMPAS defined standard for camera and projector masks for screen picture with an ASPECT RATIO of nominally1:1.37.

 

ACADEMY GATE/MASK
Dimensions of (not identical) camera and projector GATE as defined by the ACADEMY FORMAT.

 

ACADEMY LEADER
LEADER on a film print with synchronising marks and information as specified by the AMPAS. See also COUNT-DOWN LEADER.

 

ACCESS
Procedure of locating and supplying archive film for display in a suitable format for users' needs

 

ACES
Academy Color Encoding System - A set of components for a wide range of motion picture workflows intended to eliminate the ambiguity of previous file formats. At its heart is a file format specification in the form of an enhanced and constrained version of OpenEXR, a high dynamic range image file format.

 

ACETATE
Loose term for CELLULOSE ACETATE film BASE, which may encompass both TRIACETATE and DIACETATE.

 

ACID DYES
Dyes used for tinting film emulsions in aqueous solution, in which the negative ion (anion) is the colour-forming group.

 

ACTION AND SOUND
Same as MUTE AND TRACK

 

ACTIVE PICTURE
The area of a TV frame that carries picture information. Outside the active area there are other lines and field blanking.

 

ACUTANCE
Term used to describe the edge definition at a density change in a film image.

 

ACVL
Association of Cinema and Video Laboratories (USA).

 

ADDITIVE COLOUR
Colour created by adding together light of different colours (usually Red Green and Blue) so that each component adds to the perceived colour. See also SUBTRACTIVE COLOUR.

 

ADDITIVE SYNTHESIS (COLOUR)
The creation of colour by adding together light of different colours (usually Red Green and Blue). See also SUBTRACTIVE SYNTHESIS.

 

ADR
Automated Dialogue Replacement: the process of re-recording a dialogue track after filming (US term). See POST-SYNC.

 

ADVANCE
The separation, usually defined by the number of frames, between a point on the film sound track and the corresponding picture image for correct synchronization. See also OFFSET.

 

AERIAL IMAGE
An optical virtual image in space rather than a real image on a screen

 

ALIASING
In digital imagery, where smooth curves are reproduced as jagged steps due to an insufficiently high sampling rate. See also CONTOURING.

 

ALIENS
A colloquial term for ALIAS effects, including ringing, contouring and jaggy edges.

 

AMPAS
See ACADEMY.

 

ANAGLYPH
Stereoscopic projection where both left and right eye positive images are reproduced in different colours, usually red and cyan, on a single frame and single film strip, and viewed by complementary coloured filters.

 

ANALYSER
Video display equipment for grading a film negative that produces an image that simulates a film print, and gives printer exposure values for the red, green and blue elements.

 

ANALYSIS
Process of separately producing records of red, green and blue light corresponding to these components in a scene.

 

ANAMORPHIC (film image)
A cinematographic image with lateral (usually) compression produced by an anamorphic lens, designed to be projected using an anamorphic lens.

 

ANAMORPHIC (optical system)
An optical lens system with different vertical and horizontal magnifications, used for anamorphic photography, or projection.

 

ANAMORPHIC (video image)
A 16:9 video image compressed laterally into a 4:3 format, designed to be displayed uncompressed on a widescreen (16:9) television.

 

ANILINE DYES
Dye chemicals produced from aniline, invented originally from coal in the 19th century.

 

ANIMATION
The presentation of a sequence of images, usually created as artwork or from model photography, in rapid succession to create the illusion of movement. See also STOP MOTION.

 

ANSWER PRINT
The first print of a film submitted for approval by a laboratory to a client/customer.

 

ANTI-HALATION
Coating or layer on film to reduce HALATION. See BACKING

 

AP
ANSWER PRINT (abbreviation used primarily in US)

 

APERTURE (1)
The opening of an optical lens system that controls the light transmitted

 

APERTURE (2)
The opening of a camera, printer or projector that defines the image shape and size. See also GATE.

 

APPLICATION
The process of black and white re-development of only the soundtrack area of a colour print film using VISCOUS PROCESSING so that a silver-based image, suitable for the photocells of conventional sound readers, is produced. See also TRACK APPLICATOR, CYAN TRACK, RED READER.

 

AR
ASPECT RATIO

 

ARCHIVAL
That which an archive has chosen to preserve. Often used to mean suitable for long-term preservation

 

ARCHIVE (verb)
Long-term storage of information.

 

ARTEFACT or ARTIFACT
Unwanted effects which are a direct result of some technical limitation. Term commonly used in the context of digital imagery.

 

ARTIFICIAL LIGHT
Light generated by any light source except the sun.

 

ASA
American Standards Association, also, colloquially, a film speed nomenclature system. See DIN.

 

ASC
American Society of Cinematographers.

 

ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange – an archaic 7bit computer character set.

 

ASPECT RATIO
Ratio of width to height (height as unity) of a image. May be applied to camera aperture, mask or gate, or to a display by film projection, or any video or data screen display.

 

ASSEMBLER
A technician who prepares film for a laboratory process such as PRINTING or GRADING/TIMING

 

ATMOSPHERE (sound)
A recording of background sound of a scene for use in the sound mixing process.

 

AUDIO
Sound - used to describe any sound recording or playing equipment, the entire chain, or the sound itself.

 

AUTO A & B
See AUTO-OPTICAL

 

AUTO-CONFORM/ING
Where an EDL file is used to carry out a conform in an on-line edit suite or workstation.

 

AUTO-OPTICAL
A method of printing DISSOLVE (and other) effects from a single roll of negative film on an automatic optical printer.

 

AUTO-SELECTIVE PRINTING
See AUTO-OPTICAL (US term).

 

AVERAGE GRADIENT
A measure of the average slope of the CHARACTERISTIC CURVE of a photographic emulsion between two defined points, not confined to just the straight line portion of the curve (as with GAMMA). Normally used as the abbreviation AG.

 

AZIMUTH (1)
The angle between the slit of a photographic sound head and the film path direction.

 

AZIMUTH (2)
The angle between the magnetic head and the film or tape path direction (video tape).

 

BACK FOCUS
Distance from a lens to its image plane.

 

BACK PROJECTION
Image projection onto the rear of a translucent screen, also a special effect using the technique.

 

BACKING
Anti-halation backing, or any coating on the back or base of a film, sometimes referred to as REMJET.

 

BAFTA
British Academy of Film and Television Arts.

 

BALANCE
Term used to describe the "neutrality" of a colour film or TV image.

 

BALANCE STRIPE
MAGNETIC STRIPE applied to a film on the opposite edge of a film with a magnetic sound track to ensure uniform winding.

 

BANDWIDTH
The amount of data or video information that can be passed in a given time.

 

BASE
The transparent support on which the photographic emulsion of a film is coated.

 

BASE SCRATCH
See CELL SCRATCH

 

BASE SIDE
The BASE side of a piece of film (see also CELL SIDE)

 

BASIC DYES
Dyes used for toning film using mordant dyeing technique, in which the colour resides in the positive ion (cation)

 

BATCH NUMBER
Coating batch code for photographic film.

 

BBC
British Broadcasting Corporation.

 

BEAM SPLITTER
Camera or printer device for separating light or images into two or three beams (usually R,G, & B).

 

BELL & HOWELL TAPE
Punched paper tape for controlling a film printer (has a non-standard punched tape code).

 

BEST FIT CONTRAST
The gradient of the straight line which "best fits" the DLogE (characteristic curve) of a film stock, expressed as the density rise for a LogE increase of 1.00. Sometimes called beta. A measure of film CONTRAST used mostly for colour intermediate films.

 

BETACAM
A family of Sony analogue component VTR systems using a half-inch cassette.

 

BH PERFORATIONS
Bell and Howell Perforations: Type of perforation shape used in 35mm negative and duplicating film stocks. Sometimes referred to as NEGATIVE PERFORATIONS. See also KS PERFORATIONS.

 

BIDIRECTIONAL (PRINTER)
Film printer capable of printing both forwards and backwards.

 

BILATERAL SOUND TRACK
Photographic sound track with a modulation symmetrical about its centre axis. See also UNILATERAL SOUNDTRACK.

 

BILATERAL SOUND TRACK, DOUBLE
Two parallel bilateral sound tracks.

 

BILATERAL SOUND TRACK, SINGLE
One single bilateral sound track image.

 

BILATERAL SOUND TRACK, TRIPLE
Three parallel bilateral sound tracks.

 

BINARY
Mathematical representation of a number to base 2, ie with only two states, 1 and 0; on and off; or high and low - the basis of all digital systems and computing.

 

BINDER
The material carrying the metallic oxides in a magnetic coating

 

BIPACK
Two separate sensitized films running in contact, usually emulsion to emulsion, in a camera, printer or other device, intended for the exposure of one through the other. Normally for the production of two separate colour records (a two strip), one the inverted image of the other. Also DU-PACK (DuPont).

 

BIT
Binary digIT = bit. One bit can define two levels or states, on or off, black or white, 0 or 1 etc.

 

BITC
Burnt-in Timecode. Timecode that is displayed as part of the video image to which it refers.

 

BKS
British Kinematographic Society: original title before the change to BKSTS

 

BKSTS
British Kinematographic, Sound and Television Society

 

BLACK
Incapable of reflecting or transmitting any visible light - a subjective term

 

BLACK AND WHITE
Common term for a greyscale image

 

BLACK LEADER
Film with opaque black film base used for leaders or used for A and B CUTTING. (Term more common in US). See BLACK SPACING, SLUG

 

BLACK SPACING
Film with opaque black film base used for leaders or used for A and B CUTTING. (Term more common in UK). See BLACK LEADER, SLUG.

 

BLEACH (1)
To remove or decolourize the silver image, usually by conversion back to silver salts

 

BLEACH (2)
To remove the visible colour of a dye

 

BLEACH (3)
A solution used to bleach a film image

 

BLIP
Loose term for a SYNC PULSE, a short sound on an optical or magnetic track to be synchronised with a SYNC MARK on a film.

 

BLOOP
A triangular patch (or a punched hole, or hand-painted triangle) used to suppress the noise of a splice in an optical sound track

 

BLOOPING
The act of blooping, especially using blooping ink

 

BLOOPING INK
A dense, fast drying dye for use in making a bloop

 

BLOW-UP
Optical enlargement of a film image from one gauge to another (for example 16mm to 35mm)

 

BLU-RAY
Blu-ray Disc (official abbreviation BD) is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the DVD format.

 

BLUE (1)
One of the three additive primaries

 

BLUE (2)
See LAVENDER. A less common, but still widely used name for EASTMAN Fine Grain Duplicating Film 1365 (Nitrate Base).

 

BLUE BACKING/BLUE SCREEN NEGATIVE
Negative of an action shot against a blue background, as a MASK for combination printing by MATTE or TRAVELLING MATTE. See also GREEN SCREEN.

 

BLUE BACKING/BLUE SCREEN SHOT
Action shot against a blue background, as a MASK for MATTE, TRAVELLING MATTE, or CHROMAKEY effects work. See also GREEN SCREEN.

 

BREAK-DOWN
Separation of a roll of camera original negative film into it's constituent scenes

 

BRIGHTNESS
The luminance of a surface emitting or reflecting light, measured in candelas/sq m

 

BRITTLENESS
Subjective term for fragility and tendency to break of a film, a result of, for instance, the loss of plasticizer or water

 

BS
British Standard, unit of photographic speed in BS units

 

BSI
British Standards Institute

 

BURN-IN (1)
To produce white titles on already exposed film by overexposure or double exposure, usually through A and B ROLL PRINTING

 

BURN-IN (2)
To add time code numerals to a video tape

 

BUS
An internal pathway for sending digital signals from one part of a system to another.

 

BUTT SPLICE
Film JOIN where ends are not overlapped,but butted, usually taped.

 

BUTT WELD
Film JOIN in polyester film where ends are butted together and heat welded.

 

BUZZ TRACK (1)
A test film to determine whether the scanning slit of a projector is correctly aligned

 

BUZZ TRACK (2)
A sound track recorded with local sounds to fill in a gap in a sound track

 

BYTE
A unit of digital data consisting of 8 bits (binary digits). Used as a measure of file size or storage capacity. Multiples are denoted Kilobyte (kB), Megabyte (MB), Gigabyte (GB),Terabyte (TB), Petabyte (PB), Exabyte (EB). However software and computer industries currently use multiples expressed in powers of 2 rather than 10, so that 1 KB is 210 Bytes (= 1024 Bytes), 1 GB is 210 KB (= 1024 KB), and so on, while disk drive manufacturers tend to describe storage capacity in powers of 10, so 1 KB = 1000 Bytes. Thus a 100GB drive has the capacity for 93 GB of files.

 

CAMERA LOG
Record sheet with details of scenes shot on a roll of original negative

 

CAMERA ORIGINAL (FILM)
The original film element exposed in the camera, either a negative, or a reversal positive original

 

CANCELLATION
The result of correctly printing an optical negative soundtrack so that distortion caused by image spread in the original is cancelled.

 

CANDELA
The SI unit of luminous intensity. Defined as the luminous intensity in a given direction of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 × 1012 Hz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 W per steradian. Used in lighting and cinema applications to measure luminance as candela per square metre. See also FOOT-LAMBERT.

 

CAPSTAN
A smooth or toothed drive spindle for film or tape

 

CARBON ARC
Type of lamp using an electric arc between two carbon electrodes to produce an intense light, commonly used in film projectors until the late 1960s. See also XENON ARC.

 

CARTRIDGE
Container holding a roll of film or a continous film loop

 

CASSETTE (1)
A light tight container for a roll of film for attachment to a daylight operating film processor

 

CASSETTE (2)
An audio tape cartridge, or a video tape cartridge

 

CC FILTER
Optically flat Colour Correction filters made of gelatin in RGBCMY and intervals of 0.05 Density (Kodak term)

 

CCD
CHARGE COUPLED DEVICE - a linear or two dimensional array of light sensitive elements. Light is converted to an electrical charge proportional to the brightness falling on each cell.

 

CCIR
Consultative Committee for International Radio, standardising body body for television and radio

 

CEL
Transparent foreground used for animation filming

 

CELL SCRATCH
Scratch on the BASE or CELL side of film (also BASE SCRATCH)

 

CELL SIDE
The BASE side of a piece of film (cell = celluloid, though not used exclusively for cellulose nitrate)

 

CELLULOID
Trade name for cellulose nitrate, occasionally used for all film

 

CELLULOSE ACETATE
Acetate ester of cellulose used as a BASE for film. See also ACETATE.

 

CELLULOSE NITRATE
Plastic formed from nitrated cellulose used as a BASE for film until the early 1950s. See also NITRATE.

 

CHANGEOVER CUES
Visible marks in the corner of the frame to indicate an iminent reel change over between film projectors or telecine. See CUE DOTS.

 

CHARACTERISTIC CURVE
A graph of Log E and Density for a particular film stock

 

CHARGE COUPLED DEVICE
CCD - a type of image sensor used in cameras and scanners

 

CHECKER-BOARD CUTTING
see A and B CUTTING (US term)

 

CHEMICAL TONING
see TONING

 

CHEQUERBOARD (UK) / CHECKERBOARD (USA)
A & B roll printing to avoid images of splices, or to create simple effects such as dissolves. The term is also used (in USA) to describe an A & B PRINT.

 

CHROMA
Television signal component carying colour, also used loosely to mean colour saturation

 

CHROMA SUBSAMPLING
The process of reducing the data rate of a digital video stream by limiting the number of colour information samples compared to the luma or signal. Denoted by a ratio indicating the relative number of samples of luminance, and of two adjacent rows of colour pixels. E.g. 4:2:2 (Rec. 601) or 4:2:0 (MPEG-2).

 

CHROMAKEY
Video special effect combining images with a blue (usually) background with other images. Similar to travelling matte

 

CHROMINANCE
The colour part of a video signal relating to the hue and saturation (not brightness/luminance) of an image.

 

CHROMOGENIC
Production of colour by a chemical process, as in the development of colour film and in certain toning processes

 

CIE
International Commission on Illumination. Developed the first mathematically defined colour space.

 

CINCH MARKS
Scratches caused by excessive tension during the winding up of film

 

CINCHING
Pulling the end of film to tighten the wind of loosely wound film - generally causes cinch marks

 

CINE
Colloquial term for any motion picture practice or equipment

 

CINEMASCOPE
Trade name for an anamorphic widescreen film system

 

CINEMATOGRAPHY
General term for motion picture fim technology

 

CINEX STRIP
A short test print in which a frame from each scene has been exposed with a test exposure. Originally referred to the test printer used to make this test, now used for the test print strip itself.

 

CLAPPER
Hinged arms clapped together and filmed by camera to establish film/sound synchronisation

 

CLAW
Device to pull film through the camera or printer gate intermittently

 

CLEARING BATH
Aqueous solution used in film development to ensure staining reduced to a minimum. The precise chemistry depends on the process

 

CLIP
A general term for any section of a film sequence or scene.

 

Clone
An exact copy, indistinguishable from the original (used of digital files or video).

 

CMY
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, the subtractive primaries, also print grading lights (in Technicolor). Also frequently referred to as YCM.

 

COCKLE
Term to describe the bucking of film caused by uneven shrinkage, resulting in an uneven wind. See SPOKING, EDGE WEAVE

 

COLLIMATED
Of light in a parallel beam, produced by condensing lenses

 

COLORIMETRY
The measurement of colour in numerical terms

 

COLOUR
A general term for the subjective sensation of viewing different wavelengths of visible light. USA COLOR

 

COLOUR ANALYSER
see Analyser, colour grading electronic video device

 

COLOUR BALANCE
Term used to describe the "neutrality" of a colour film or TV image or it's departure from neutral, see also BALANCE

 

COLOUR CONTRAST
The subjective effect of the intensities of two colors. Numerically the log of this ratio

 

COLOUR CORRECTION
Adjustment (by grading) of an off balance print or image to a correct balance

 

COLOUR DEVELOPER
Aqueous solution of a colour developing agent to produce dyes in film emulsions chromagenically

 

COLOUR FILTER
A transparent filter (often gelatin or glass) for selectively absorbing light wavelengths

 

COLOUR MODEL
An theoretical model of how colours can be represented by different colour components, such as Red, Green and Blue (RGB). See also COLOUR SPACE.

 

COLOUR PRINT
A photographic colour positive normally intended for projection

 

COLOUR REVERSAL INTERMEDIATE
An integral masked intermediate colour negative made from a colour negative on Eastman Colour Reversal Intermediate Film

 

COLOUR ROLL
A term used in silent film making, pre 1930. A roll of negative cut and joined in a convenient reel that can be printed to make prints that will all be tinted or toned the same colour. These are not necessarily in the right sequence. A similar technique was used for negatives requiring all the same printer exposure (but no name seems to have survived for these rolls).

 

COLOUR SEPARATIONS
Black and white, monochrome film negatives or positives made through tricolor filters that represent R,G or B records of a scene

 

COLOUR SPACE
A system for describing colour numerically, based on a COLOUR MODEL, typically to define the colour range used by cameras, display systems, film and so on. See also CIE, RGB, XYZ.

 

COLOUR SYSTEM
Trade name, manufacturer's or traditional name of a colour film process or technique.

 

COLOUR TEMPERATURE
A method of describing the colour of a light source, by comparing with the temperature in Kelvin units of a black body radiator

 

COLOURISATION
The addition of colour to a black and white film.

 

COLOURIST
An individual who adjusts or enhances the colour of an image, either photochemically or digitally.

 

COMBINED
Adjective describing any film element that has both picture and optical sound track. See also COMPOSITE and MARRIED.

 

COMBINED PRINT
A film print that has both picture and optical sound track. (This term is the one commonly used in the UK). See also COMPOSITE and MARRIED.

 

COMMAG
Composite Magnetic (print or positive). A magnetic sound track and picture combined together on the same film.

 

COMMENTARY TRACK
A sound track used in the production process with commentary only, commonly used in newsreel and documentary production. See SPEECH TRACK, DIALOGUE TRACK.

 

COMOPT
Combined Optical (print), An optical sound track and picture combined together on the same film.

 

COMPLEMENTARY COLOURS
Colours which when ADDITIVELY mixed form a neutral colour (white, grey, black). The complementary colours of Red, Green and Blue are Cyan, Magenta and Yellow respectively, and vice versa.

 

COMPONENT VIDEO
A video signal in which the picture information is conveyed in three separate channels, e.g. RGB or YCbCr (ie. one luminance and two chrominance channels)

 

COMPOSITE (film)
Adjective describing any film element that has both picture and optical sound track. See also COMBINED and MARRIED.

 

COMPOSITE PRINT
A film print that has both picture and optical sound track. See also COMBINED and MARRIED.

 

COMPOSITE VIDEO
A system in which three colour omponents co-exist in a single signal. E.g. PAL and NTSC.

 

COMPOSITING
Combining images by techniques such as layering, keying, or matting.

 

COMPRESSION (data)
The process of encoding data in such a way as to reduce the number of bits originally needed. Typically used to reduce the data rate of a digital video stream.

 

COMPRESSION RATIO
The ratio of the compressed size to the uncompressed size of digital data.

 

CONCATENATION
The linking together of systems or data in a linear or sequential manner.

 

CONDENSER LENS
A lens, or lens system, able to collimate light, ie. generate a parallel beam

 

CONFORM (verb)
To assemble picture and sound elements to a prepared schedule or EDL in order to create an edited film or video production. May also refer to the process of making a CUT NEGATIVE by visually matching the cuts and joins of the CUTTING COPY. See also MATCHING.

 

CONFORMED NEGATIVE
A CUT NEGATIVE, as opposed to an OVERCUT NEGATIVE

 

CONSERVATION (film)
The processes necessary to ensure the physical survival of the film with minimum degradation

 

CONSERVATION MASTER
Term for a duplicate made primarily for long term archival storage. See PRESERVATION MASTER

 

CONTACT PRINTING
Printing a film by exposing the raw stock in direct contact with the original.

 

CONTINUOUS PRINTING
Printing film by continuous, rather than intermittent, transport of the original and the print. See also STEP PRINTING.

 

CONTINUOUS PROJECTION
Projection by continuous film transport, typically using a mirror or prism system.

 

CONTOURS/ CONTOURING
An unwanted artefact similar to "posterisation" occurring in digital video images when insufficient bit depths or inaccurate processing are used. See also ALIASING.

 

CONTRAST
Relationship between light (highlight) and dark (shadow) areas of a picture, described as high, low or a number (numerically the log of this ratio)

 

CONTROL STRIP
See SENSITOMETRIC STRIP.

 

CONTROL TRACK (film)
A magnetic sound track on a film controlling the distibution of other magnetic tracks to loudspeakers

 

CONTROL TRACK (video)
A linear track recorded onto video tape as a reference for the running speed of a VTR.

 

CORE
A cylinder used as a centre for winding film, usually plastic, originally wood

 

CORNER PINNING
A TRACKING technique for controlling the position and rotation of video/data images by using the corners to define a fixed image position.

 

COUNT-DOWN LEADER
General term for a leader at the HEAD of a film with synchronising marks and count-down numbers. See ACADEMY LEADER.

 

COUNTER
Device for measuring the length of a film, normally by counting sprocket holes. (See also SYNCHRONISER)

 

COUPLER/DYE COUPLER
A chemical that combines with oxidised developing agent to form a dye. (See also CHROMOGENIC)

 

CP FILTER
Colour Printing filters, for use in uncollimated light, in primary colours and increments of 0.025 or 0.05D

 

CRAWLING TITLES
Titles or credits travelling horizontally across the screen

 

CREDITS
Acknowledgements in the titles, normally at beginning or end of a film

 

CREEPING SYNC
A progressive error in synchronization between picture and sound

 

CRI
See COLOUR REVERSAL INTERMEDIATE

 

CROPPING
Cutting off the top or sides of a frame to change the aspect ratio

 

CROSS MODULATION TEST
A test to determine the optimum printing exposure of variable area sound tracks to achieve CANCELLATION

 

CROSSOVER (TEST)
Sensitometric test when converting printing conditions from one batch of film to another

 

CU
Close Up

 

CUE
A signal or mark on a film to actuate an event. See PRINTER CUE.

 

CUE DOTS
Visible marks in the corner of the frame to indicate an iminent reel change over between film projectors or telecine. See CHANGEOVER CUES.

 

CUT
A change from one scene to another

 

CUT NEGATIVE
A roll of negative cut and joined to MATCH / CONFORM with the editors requirements (usually by matching / conforming with the CUTTING COPY or a video version or an EDL, so as to produce a final print).

 

CUTS
Unused film scenes - See OUT-TAKES

 

CUTS AND TRIMS
Portions of scenes left behind after the utilised part is cut into a production, often stored after negative cutting. May, or may not, include OUT-TAKES. See also TRIMS., TRIMS AND OUTS.

 

CUTTING COPY
Laboratory term for the editors cut film, joined by splices and sometimes with crayoned instructions for transitions, effects and other lab work, ready for NEGATIVE CUTTING/MATCHING. See also WORK PRINT)

 

CUTTING FRAMES
Extra frames at start and end of scenes to allow latitude in subsequent fine editing, particularly in animation

 

CYAN
Subtractive primary colour. See MAGENTA/YELLOW.

 

CYAN TRACK
A soundtrack on colour film formed from cyan dye rather than silver, introduced in 2004 to remove the need to re-develop the soundtrack area. Suitable only for RED READER sound heads. See also APPLICATION.

 

D LOG E CURVE
See CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

 

D-1
A standard for component digital SD (Rec. 601) video. It uses4:2:2 standard using 8-bit sampling. The tape is 19 mm (3/4 inch) wide and allows up to 94 minutes to be recorded on a cassette.

 

D-10
A standard for component digital SD (Rec. 601) video. Uses a 1/2 inch beta-type tape cassette. Video is compressed with motion-JPEG to a 50 Mb/s data rate. As used by Sony in its MPEG IMX format.

 

D-11
A standard for component digital HD (Rec. 709) video at 1080 lines per frame. Uses a 1/2 inch Beta-type tape cassette. Video is 3:1:1 chroma subsampled and compressed with motion-JPEG compression to 140 Mbit/s. As used by Sony in its HDCAM format.

 

D-12
A standard for component digital HD (Rec. 709) video at 720 or 1080 lines per frame. Uses a 6.35 mm tape cassette. Video is 4:2:2 chroma subsampled and compressed with DV motion-JPEG compression to 100 Mbit/s. As used by Panasonic in its DVCPRO HD format.

 

D-2
A standard for composite digital SD video. The tape is 19 mm (3/4 inch) wide and allows up to 208 minutes to be recorded on a cassette. Neither cassettes nor recording formats are compatible with D-1.

 

D-3
A standard for composite digital SD video. It uses uncompressed NTSC or PAL encoding sampled at 8 bits. The tape is 1/2 inch wide and allows up to 248 minutes to be recorded on a cassette.

 

D-5
A standard for component digital SD (Rec. 601) video using the same cassette as D3 but recording component signals sampled to ITU-R BT.601 recommendations at 10-bit resolution and recorded uncompressed.

 

D-5 HD
A standard for component digital HD (Rec. 709) video at 720 or 1080 lines per frame. Uses the same 1/2 inch wide tape as D3 and allows up to 124 minutes to be recorded on a cassette. Uses motion-JPEG compression to achieve HD datarates comparable to D-5 SD.

 

D-6
A standard for component digital HD (Rec. 709) video at 1080 lines per frame. It uses 19 mm (3/4 inch) tape. Used in the Philips/Thomson Voodoo Media Recorder.

 

D-7
A standard for component digital SD (Rec. 601) video. Uses a 6.35 mm tape. Video is compressed with DV motion-JPEG to 25 Mb/s or 50 Mb/s data rates. As used by Panasonic in its DVCPRO and DVCPRO50 formats.

 

D-9
A standard for component digital SD (Rec. 601) video. Uses a 1/2 inch VHS-type tape cassette. Video is compressed with DV motion-JPEG to a 50 Mb/s data rate. Also called DIGITAL-S by its creator, JVC.

 

D-CINEMA
DIGITAL CINEMA: Digital distribution and projection of cinema material. Commonly taken to mean cinema comlying with DCI (Digital Cinema Initiatives) recommendations. See also E-Cinema.

 

D, M & E
Dialogue, music and effects: a soundtrack consisting of these elements. See also M & E.

 

DAILIES
First print from a camera negative, often made quickly, or overnight, ready to be viewed the following morning. (USA term). See also RUSHES.

 

DAT
Digital Audio Tape

 

DATA RECORDER
Machine designed to record and replay data on tape or disc.

 

DATE CODE
Manufacturer's code on the film edges to indicate date of manufacture. See also EDGE CODE, STOCK NUMBERS.

 

DAYLIGHT
A colour balance of 5,400K , for "daylight" colour film

 

DCDM
DIGITAL CINEMA DISTRIBUTION MASTER: the set of master files whose function is to provide an interchange standard for Digital Cinema presentations. The DCDM is a series of uncompressed TIFF files, associated uncompressed BWAV sound tracks and subtitling files. None of the files are compressed or encrypted.

 

DCI
Digital Cinema Initiatives: an initiative by the US major motion picture studios to establish an architecture for digital cinema.

 

DCP
DIGITAL CINEMA PACKAGE: a set of files conforming to DCI specifications which contain all the elements needed (images, sound, subtitles etc.) for the projection of a film. The images in a DCP are compressed using JPEG2000 encoding, and it may be ENCRYPTED.

 

DCT (compression)
Discrete Cosine Transform - widely-used as the first stage of compression of digital video pictures.

 

DENSITOMETER
A device for measuring the density of film

 

DENSITY
A measure of the "blackness" of film. D=Log1/Transmission

 

DEPTH OF FIELD
Range of object distances from a camera, at a specific aperture, over which the image is acceptably sharp

 

DEPTH OF FOCUS
Range of image distances from a camera film plane, at a specific aperture, over which the image is acceptably sharp

 

DESENSITIZATION
Treatment of film to reduce the photographic speed or contrast, usually by a chemical solution.

 

DEVELOP
The process of using chemicals to turn a latent image on a film into a visible image.

 

DEVELOPER
The aqueous solution of developing agent used to develop a latent image

 

DIACETATE
Loose term for CELLULOSE ACETATE film base in which approximately two out of every three hydroxyl groups of cellulose have been replaced by acetate groups. Used in early versions of safety film before TRIACETATE base was developed.

 

DIALOGUE TRACK
A sound track used in the production process with voice only, i.e. no music or effects. See SPEECH TRACK, COMMENTARY TRACK.

 

DIAPHRAGM
Iris device for controlling light transmission by a lens.

 

DIAPOSITIVE
A "direct" positive. A camera original film image processed by reversal processing to make a positive image. Term mostly used by French and German manufacturers. See also REVERSAL.

 

DICHROIC
The property of certain crystals or solutions to transmit and reflect band s of different wavelength. In practice a glass filter selectively reflecting, and transmitting wavelengths of light, especially used in beam splitters.

 

DIFFUSE
(Of light) Scattered, non specular.

 

DIFFUSER
Translucent glass or filter to diffuse a specular beam of light

 

DIGITAL BETACAM
A development of the original analogue Betacam video tape recorder which records digitally on a similar cassette format. Colloquially known as Digibeta.

 

DIGITAL CINEMA
See D-CINEMA

 

DIGITAL CINEMA DISTRIBUTION MASTER
See DCDM

 

DIGITAL CINEMA PACKAGE
See DCP

 

DIGITAL FILM NEGATIVE
A film negative made from digital files by a film recorder.

 

DIGITAL FILM RECORDING
A film record produced from digital data.

 

DIGITAL INTERMEDIATE
Any digital video or data file made by scanning a film, or by digital capture, for the purpose of post-production. May be re-recorded back to film, or used to create a digital projection or other display format.

 

DIGITAL SOURCE MASTER
See DSM

 

DIGITAL-S
See D-9

 

DIGITISER
A device which converts an analogue input to a digital representation, e.g. analogue to digital converters (ADCs).

 

DIN
Deutsches Institut für Normung, the German standards organisation, also, colloquially, a film speed nomenclature system

 

DIRECT POSITIVE (1)
A camera original film image processed by reversal processing to make a positive image, i.e. a DIAPOSITIVE or REVERSAL positive.

 

DIRECT POSITIVE/PRINT (2)
A print made on a "direct process film stock", such as Eastman MP Direct Film, by printing from another positive. Direct films produce a monochrome positive images when processed in a negative/positive (i.e. not a reversal film process). Quality is lower than normal duplication techniques and the process is used for making quck low quality access print. See also SLASH PRINT, WORK PRINT, DIRTY DUPE, SLOP PRINT.

 

DIRTY DUPE
Duplicate copy of a WORK PRINT, often made for a sound editor (US term). See SLASH DUPE, SLOP PRINT.

 

DISSOLVE
A gradual transition from one scene to another.

 

DLP
Texas Instruments Inc Digital Light Processing - name given to systems which use DMDs (Digital Micromirror Devices) as the light modulator. DLP Cinema is a digital image projection system

 

DOLBY
The company Dolby Laboratories, Inc. or one of its noise reduction systems.

 

DOPE SHEET
Sheet of instructions for shooting scenes, or a record of scenes shot. See STORY BOARD.

 

DOUBLE BILATERAL SOUND TRACK
Two parallel BILATERAL SOUND TRACKS

 

DOUBLE COATED FILM
Film coated with emulsion on both side of the film base

 

DOUBLE EXPOSURE
Two separate exposures on the same film

 

DOUBLE HEADED
Two reel projection method, with the film image on one reel, sound on separate magnetic sprocketed film. Also used to describe the two elements needed for the projection - the print and a magnetic track. (UK term for DOUBLE SYSTEM).

 

DOUBLE REEL
A roll of film, a unit of film as part of a film programme, usually about 2000ft

 

DOUBLE SYSTEM
US term for DOUBLE HEADED. Also known as DUAL SYSTEM.

 

DOUBLE-SIDED SOUND TRACK
A optical photographic sound film with two tracks, one in one direction, one in the other. See UP AND DOWN tracks.

 

DOWSER
Device for blocking the projector light from the film, originally to prevent nitrate film igniting.

 

DPX
Digital Picture Exchange (DPX) is a common file format for film scanning and DIGITAL INTERMEDIATES, and is an ANSI/SMPTE standard (268M-2003). The density of each colour channel is represented as an uncompressed scale, commonly logarithmic in an attempt to preserve the characteristics of an original camera negative. The DPX file format was originally derived from Kodak Cineon open file format used for digital images generated by its original film scanner.

 

DROP-FRAME / TIMECODE
A method of compensating for the fact that the 525/60 line/field format used with NTSC coding system does not run at exactly 60 fields per second but 59.94, or 29.97 frames per second - a difference of 1:1000.

 

DROPOUT
Short loss of signal in a magnetic recording, due to loss of head contact or faulty tape.

 

DRUM (sound film)
A large diameter cylinder around which optical sound film passes in order to ensure speed stability.

 

DRUM (video)
A precision cylinder in which the record and playback heads are mounted.

 

DRY RUN
A trial camera take without film. See also WALK THROUGH.

 

DSM
DIGITAL SOURCE MASTER: the original material from which a DIGITAL CINEMA production is derived. Unlike the DCDM and DCP, this is not defined by any standards.

 

DTS
In cinema, refers to a system developed by DTS Inc. in which the sound is recorded on a separate CD format disc, with an optical timecode on the film to maintain synchronisation.

 

DTV
Digital Television, any or all digital TV systems

 

DUALATERAL SOUND TRACK
An optical photographic sound track with two identically oriented unilateral variable area tracks side by side

 

DUB/DUBB (1)
The process of recording a sounds, speech, effects etc, in synchonicity with a running film in order to create a film sound track. (DUBB sometimes used in UK, DUB has become the more common spelling generally)

 

DUB/DUBB (2)
A speech track created by studio dubbing.

 

DUB/DUBB (3)
The process of creating a speech track in a different language to the original. See LANGUAGE DUBB

 

DUFAYCOLOR
An ADDITIVE colour film process in which the film stock was exposed through a red, green and blue mosaic RESEAU printed on the BASE side.

 

DUPE/S
A loose term for any duplicate film element.

 

DUPLEX SOUND TRACK
A photographic sound track with two identical unilateral mirror image variable area tracks side by side

 

DUPLICATE
A general term for a copy or reproduction of a film element, often used loosely to mean a duplicate negative.

 

DUPLICATE NEGATIVE
A copy of an original camera negative made by a number of possible routes, though typically via a DUPLICATING POSITIVE. Often used to refer to a b/w negative rather than a colour INTERNEGATIVE.

 

DUPLICATE POSITIVE
A general term for a positive copy of a positive made by a number of possible routes.

 

DUPLICATING POSITIVE
A black and white intermediate positive made from a black and white negative specifically intended for further generation of a duplicate negative. See MASTER POSITIVE. Often referred to a a FINE GRAIN or FINE GRAIN POSITIVE.

 

DUPLICATION
The procedure of making a duplicate film element

 

DUPLITIZED
US term (originally Kodak in origin) for double coated film used for two-colour print making.

 

DV
A digital video tape format using component digital video using motion-JPEG compression at data rates of 25, 50, or 100 Mb/s. It uses 6.35 mm (quarter-inch) wide tape to record 525/60 or 625/50 video for the consumer (DV) and professional markets (Panasonic’s DVCPRO and Sony’s DVCAM). A co-operation between Hitachi, JVC, Sony, Matsushita, Mitsubishi, Philips, Sanyo, Sharp, Thomson and Toshiba,

 

DVC
Digital Video Cassette. Original name for the consumer DV format.

 

DVCAM
Sony’s development of DV using a 15 micron track on a metal oxide tape.

 

DVCPRO
Panasonic’s development of DV using a 18 micron track on 6.35mm (1/4 inch) metal particle tape. Video is compressed with DV motion-JPEG to 25 Mb/s data rate. Has SMPTE designation D-7.

 

DVCPRO 50
Panasonic’s variant of DVCPRO to give enhanced chroma resolution using a 50 Mb/s data rate. Has SMPTE designation D-7.

 

DVCPRO HD
Panasonic’s variant of DVCPRO for use with HDTV. Has SMPTE designation D-12.

 

DVD
DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions.

 

DVD-RAM
Re-recordable DVD. This is a rewritable DVD format with capacities of 2.6 or 5.6 GB. Also used in some camcorders.

 

DVD-VIDEO
A DVD optical disc format with MPEG-2 video compression for recording video on a CD-sized disk, with multi-channel audio, subtitles and copy protection capability.

 

DVE
Acronym for Digital Video Effects (systems).

 

DVTR
Acronym Digital Video Tape Recorder IncludesD1, D2 and D3, Digital Betacam(Digibeta), DV etc etc etc

 

E-CINEMA
A term generally used to describe digital cinema which does not comply with DCI specifications, usually employing lower-specification projection.

 

E.I.
Exposure Index, roughly equivalent to ASA speed rating, originally used at a time when the ASA value for cine film had not been standardized. Currently defined by Kodak as: A measurement of film speed that can be used with an exposure meter to determine the aperture needed for specific lighting conditions. Exposure index figures are applicable to meters marked for ISO or ASA speeds

 

EBU
European Broadcasting Union.

 

EDGE CODE
Manufacturer's markings on the film edges, often used to mean the date of manufacture symbols used by Kodak. Also DATE CODE, STOCK NUMBERS.

 

EDGE NUMBER
Incremental numbers (and letters) placed along a film edge (usually 1ft apart).

 

EDGE WEAVE
Differential shrinkage between the edge and centre of film, resulting in buckled edges. See COCKLE.

 

EDIT
The process of decision and action in assembling the sequence of a film or video programme

 

EDIT SYNC
See LEVEL SYNC

 

EDL
Edit Decision List. A list of the decisions which describe a series of edits. Normally refers to a timecode-based file automatically generated by editing software, using widely adopted standards such as CMX 3400 and 3600.

 

EFFECTS TRACK
A sound track, film or tape, containing special sound effects only. See also SOUND EFFECTS.

 

ELEMENT
The individual components of a film, video or data post-production procedure; e.g. original negative, dupe negative, print etc. Occassionally applied to separate scenes of a production.

 

ELEVATOR
Mechanical device to allow film to be loaded or unloaded from a processor without stopping the transport

 

EMULSION
The light sensitive layer coated onto film base, consisting of a suspension of silver salts in gelatin.

 

ENCRYPTION
The manipulation of data to prevent interpretation by all but those for whom the data is intended. Used in DIGITAL CINEMA to protect the DCP from piracy.

 

END OUT
A reel of film or tape wound so that the end is on the outside of the reel. See also TAIL OUT.

 

END-TO PAPER SECTION
Method of indicating to a printer operator the section of film to be printed, a paper marker is placed in the roll. See also PAPER-TO-PAPER.

 

ENG
Electronic News Gathering: a term to describe the capturing of news material on video rather than film.

 

ERASE
Procedure of removing a previous recording from a tape or magnetic stripe

 

ESTAR
Kodak trade name for their polyester film base

 

ETHERNET
Standard covering the physical and data link layers of local area networks (LANs)

 

EUREKA EU95
Historical proposal for a European 1250 line PAL compatible HDTV broadcasting system

 

EVEN SYNC
See LEVEL SYNC

 

EXCHANGE, FILM
A regional centre used for distrbution, repair and checking of cinema release prints

 

EXCITER LAMP
Lamp used as light source in a photographic sound reproducer in, for instance, a projector.

 

EXPOSURE
The process of subjecting film to a light image. Precisely: The total light energy falling on film, Intensity x time, usually expressed as Log to base 10 of lux x sec

 

EXPOSURE METER
Device for estimating the correct aperture to achieve optimum exposure, also called a light meter

 

f-NUMBER
Relative aperture of a lens opening, focal length divided by diaphragm diameter, usually expressed by the notation f/R where R is the ratio or f-number.

 

FADE (of dye)
Gradual loss of saturation (and sometimes hue) with time

 

FADE (special effect)
A gradual reduction of exposure of film or video to black. See FADE-IN, FADE-OUT.

 

FADE-IN
A gradual reduction of exposure of film or video to black

 

FADE-OUT
A gradual increase of exposure of film or video from black to an image

 

FADER
Shutter mechanism for producing fade-ins or fade-outs during printing

 

FALL OFF
Unevenness in brightness, usually of a projected image towards the edges.

 

FCC
FRAME COUNT CUEING: a system for cueing exposure changes during film printing.

 

FERROTYPING
The result of swollen gelatin emulsion pressing against a surface and taking on the form of that surface.

 

FIAF
Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film

 

FIBRE CHANNEL
A technology for transmitting data between computer devices at data rates of up to 10 Gbps. Commonly uses optical fibre, but data may also be transmitted via coaxial or twisted pair cables.

 

FIELD SEQUENCE
A television frame or picture which uses interlaced scanning, comprising two fields. Each successive frame of component video repeats a complete pattern of two fields and so can be edited to frame boundaries.

 

FILM
A light sensitive emulsion coated on a flexible base

 

FILM BASE
A flexible support on which a photographic emulsion is coated. See also CELL SIDE

 

FILM RECORDING
A film made from a video or data file. Can refer to the original recorded negative or or to a print made from this. This term should always be qualified by the addition of FILM RECORDED NEGATIVE or PRINT FROM FILM RECORDED NEGATIVE. See also RE-RECORDING.

 

FILM SPEED
Sensitivity of film to light, determined numerically by various national standard methods such as ASA, DIN, BS

 

FILMSTRIP
A length of film with still images, used, for example, as a slideshow.

 

FILTER
Transparent material that selectively absorbs wavelengths and alters the colour of light

 

FILTER PACK
A collection of filters used together; usually in film printers.

 

FINAL MIX
A sound track (on any medium -film, tape, magnetic stripe etc) which has been created by mixing several different sound tracks, eg music, effects, foley, speech, over-commentary etc.

 

FINE CUT
A final edit, usually a refinement of a ROUGH CUT.

 

FINE GRAIN
Kodak term for almost all their black and white films made since 1950, as in Eastman Fine Grain Negative, Eastman Fine Grain Positive Films, Eastman Fine Grain Release Print Films etc. Also used colloquially to mean FINE GRAIN POSITIVE.

 

FINE GRAIN POSITIVE
A general term for a black and white intermediate positive made from a black and white negative, usually on a filmstock with a gamma of 0.7. See DUPLICATING POSITIVE.

 

FIRETRAP
A device to prevent burning nitrate film in a projector (or a vault) from igniting other film

 

FIREWIRE
A standard high-speed serial digital interface.

 

FLARE
Scatter of light in an optical system that produces non image forming exposure and reduces contrast

 

FLASH FRAME
A single overexposed negative frame of film, accidental or intentional as a marker when printed

 

FLASHING
The technique of giving print or duplicating film a low overall exposure to reduce contrast. Also known as LATENSIFICATION. See also PRE-FLASHING.

 

FLAT
Low in contrast

 

FLATBED VIEWER
General term for a film editing machine. See MOVIOLA, STEENBECK, KEM.

 

FLICKER
Random or regular variations in screen brightness

 

FLOAT
A periodic instability of a projected image, the result of mechanical imprecisions in camera, printer etc.

 

FLOOD TRACK
A photographic sound track exposed across the entire area as a test of a sound camera or a processor to show the maximum width of the track.

 

FLOP-OVER (1)
Optical special effect in which the printed image is reversed from right to left.

 

FLOP-OVER (2)
Where a piece of film is cut into a reel the wrong way round to correct film geometry, or to reverse the image.

 

FLUTING
Film distortion or cockle where edges are stretched more than centre, also called edgewave

 

FLUTTER
A rapid periodic frequency variation in sound reproduction.

 

FOCAL LENGTH
Distance from lens centre to the point at which an image at infinity is focussed

 

FOCAL PLANE
The plane at 90 degrees to the lens axis at the position at which the image is formed

 

FOCUS
Position or state of the most well-defined image produced by a lens

 

FOG (verb)
Expose film to non image forming light, usually accidentally.

 

FOG LEVEL
The lowest density of a film material where no exposure has occurred

 

FOLEY
Incidental sound effects, doors, leathers, queaks, footsteps recorded separately and post dubbed (after Jack Foley). Also Foley Artist.

 

FOOT
Imperial measure of length, widely used in film industry. 1 ft = 0.3048 m.

 

FOOT-LAMBERT
A unit of luminance, commonly used in the US in lighting and cinema applications. See also CANDELA. 1 fL =3.426 candela per square meter.

 

FOOTAGE COUNT
The length in feet of a film.

 

FOOTAGE NUMBERS
See EDGE NUMBER.

 

FORCED DEVELOPMENT
Development for longer than the usual time to gain speed, usually at the expense of graininess.

 

FORMAT
In film, the combination of gauge, dimensions, perforations etc. Also may refer fo video recording format or digital file format.

 

FPM
Feet per minute, used to descibe film transport speeds in the UK and USA, eg film processors.

 

FPS
Frames per second.

 

FRAME
An individual picture image on a film.

 

FRAME COUNTER
Device for counting frames as a film passes through machinery or on an inspection bench.

 

FRAME LINE
The space between one frame and the next.

 

FRAME RATE
The number of frames exposed, or projected, per second.

 

FRAMESTORE
A solid state video storage, to store complete frames or pictures as separate files.

 

FRAMING
Adjusting the frame position in a projector or printer gate to include all the frame or crop as required. See also OUT OF RACK, RACKING.

 

FREEZE FRAME
Optical printing effect when one frame is repeatedly printed so that the image appears stationary.

 

FRINGE/FRINGING
A defect due to poor registration of component images. Sometimes referred to as Ghosting.

 

FRONT END
General term for all work up to the answer print stage of a film production.

 

FRONT PROJECTION
Image projection onto the front of a screen, also a film background effect using this technique.

 

FX
See SOUND EFFECTS.

 

GAMMA (film)
The gradient, expressed as ratio of density rise for a LogE change of 1.00, of the straight line portion of the DLogE (characteristic curve ) of a film stock. A measure of film CONTRAST used mostly for monochrome films with long straight line curves.

 

GAMMA (television)
The relationship between Log luminance on a monitor to the original scene

 

GAMMA (video and data)
The exponent of the power function used in the gamma correction of a signal (gamma encoding). Also used for the exponent of the inverse power fuction used to obtain a linear light value from a gamma corrected signal (gamma decoding).

 

GAMMA CORRECTION
The process of transforming a linear light intensity signal by a power function to achieve perceptually uniformity.

 

GAMUT
The set of colours which can be represented in a particular COLOUR SPACE or by a particular output device.

 

GATE
The aperture through which a film is exposed or projected; in cameras, printers and projectors

 

GAUGE
Width of film, usually in millimeters

 

GB
See BYTE

 

GEL
Loose colloquial term for a flexible filter

 

GELATIN
Flexible protein matrix used to carry the light sensitive salts and coated onto the film base

 

GENERATION LOSS
Degradation of picture quality resulting from successive printing, transfers or dubbing of film or video

 

GEOMETRY
A general term for the relationship between the image and the physical arrangement of perforations and emulsion and direction of transport, usually for 16mm film (see A or B type)

 

GRADER
The technician responsible for the quality and balance of a film print. See also TIMER (US term).

 

GRADING
The process of controlling and adjusting the overall density and colour balance of a film print. See also TIMING (US term).

 

GRAIN
The physical structure of a film image, seen as clumps of silver or dye

 

GRAININESS
The subjective visual effect of grain in film

 

GRATICULE
A cross pattern on a glass plate to assist alignment in some optical equipment, eg printers

 

GREEN
One of the three additive primaries

 

GREEN FILM
Film fresh from processing which may be difficult to project smoothly

 

GREEN SCREEN NEGATIVE
Action shot against a green background, for combination printing by CHROMAKEY or TRAVELLING MATTE. See also BLUE SCREEN NEGATIVE.

 

GREEN SCREEN SHOT
Action shot against a green background, as a MASK for MATTE, TRAVELLING MATTE, or CHROMAKEY effects work. See also BLUE SCREEN.

 

GREY SCALE
A scale of neutral grey images (usually printed on film or card) used as test material for measuring photographic response.

 

GUI
Graphical User Interface. A means of operating a system through the use of interactive graphics displayed on a screen.

 

GUIDE TRACK
A speech track made as a guide to actors recording the speech later in a studio, originally widely used for post dubbing, later only used where background noise is high.

 

H & D CURVE
See CHARACTERISTIC CURVE. 'Hurter and Driffield'. An old term only used in UK.

 

HALATION
Images caused by the scatter or internal reflection of light within a film

 

HALF FRAME
A frame dimension on 35mm film of 21 x 8mm. (Used in a few rare cameras, implies half Academy, 21 x 16mm). (NOT the same as the half frame in still cameras).

 

HALF-TONE
Describes an image where the tonal differentiation is created by dots, vignettes or ruled lines of different sizes.

 

HALIDE
A metal salt of a halogen (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine).

 

HANDLE/S
A term for the extra frames at head and tail of each scene in an OVERCUT NEGATIVE.

 

HARDENING BATH/HARDENER
A solution of chemicals for hardening film emulsion.

 

HASH MARKS
Cue marks scratched onto release prints in place of 'proper' CUE DOTS

 

HD
Abbreviated version of HDTV.

 

HD-SDI
High Definition Serial Digital Interface: for the transimission of uncompressed digital video signals within television facilities. See also SDI.

 

HDCAM
An HD video recording system from Sony developed from Digital Betacam using 8 bit DCT compression at a data rate of 144 Mb/s. Standardised by SMPTE as D-11.

 

HDCAM SR
Sony's development of HDCAM which is capable of 10 bit 4:4:4 recording at a video bitrate of 440 Mb/s. Commonly used for television programme delivery for a time.

 

HDTV
High Definition Television. A television standard (or set of standards) for High Definition, generally accepted as720-line and upward, with a picture aspect ratio of 16:9. 720x1280 and 1080x1920 are the most common.

 

HEAD (magnetic recording)
Any device that senses or transduces a signal, tape, sound etc.; a transducer

 

HEAD OUT
A reel of film or tape wound so that the HEAD is on the outside, ie opposite of TAIL OUT.

 

HEAD, OF FILM
The front end of a reel film. See also TAIL.

 

HEAT FILTER
A filter, usually glass, for absorbing heat (or infra red radiation).

 

HI ARC
Type of CARBON ARC lamp operating at a highcurrent density.

 

HI CON
High contrast film used for producing high contrast images (US term). See also PROCESS FILM.

 

HIGH BAND
A term used to denote a video tape system capable of broadcast quality, such as High Band U-MATIC.

 

HIGH KEY
A scene in which almost all the tones are high in brightness, opposite of LOW KEY

 

HIGH MAGENTA SOUNDTRACK
A type of re-developed silver soundtrack on a colour print produced from a track negative designed for a CYAN TRACK, used as an interim measure during the change over to cyan tracks and RED READERS.

 

HIGH SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY
The use photography at faster than the conventional frame rate in order to slow down the action. See also SLOW MOTION.

 

HIGHLIGHT
The brightest part of a scene or it's reproduced image

 

HISTOGRAM
A graphical representation of the colour density distribution in an image.

 

HOLD FRAME
See FREEZE FRAME

 

HOLD TAKE
Negative of a scene to be held for later possible use, not selected for rush printing

 

HORSE
A horizontal spindle holding one or several rolls of film

 

HOT SPOT
The bright area of an unevenly illuminated image on, e.g., a projection screen, tv monitor, film print.

 

HUB (data)
Device for connecting more than one network or storage device together.

 

HUB (film)
See CORE

 

HUE
The visible character of a colour as defined by it's position on the visible spectrum or CIE chromaticity diagram

 

HYPERSENSITIVITY
Increasing the speed of camera film by preflashing or chemical methods

 

HYPO
A common term for Sodium thiosulphate, the chemical most commonly used for fixing in photochemical developrnent.

 

HYPO ELIMINATOR
A solution for removing residual fixing agent from film emulsions, to increase the life of the silver image

 

ILA
Image Light Amplifier. Technology developed by Hughes-JVC for video projection. Images are displayed on a CRT with infrared phosphors. The infrared image controls the reflection of the projector light. Also D-ILA.

 

IMAX
Wide-screen motion picture system, employing 70mm film with a 15 perforation 70x46mm frame, run horizontally through camera and projector.

 

IMBIBITION
A mechanical printing method where an image is formed from dye transferred from one film to another, as used in the Dye Transfer Technicolor system.

 

IMMERSION GATE
A printer, telecine or scanner gate where the original film and unexposed stock, are immersed with a liquid in to minimise scratches. The liquid is chosen to have a similar refractive index to the film BASE. See also LIQUID GATE, WET GATE.

 

IN
See INTERNEGATIVE (1)

 

IN RACK
Term for 35mm (usually) film meaning that the frames are correclty spaced a complete frame apart, that is, each frame in 35mm film is exactly 4 perforations from the next. See also OUT OF RACK.

 

INCOMING SCENE
The second scene in a DISSOLVE. See also OUTGOING SCENE.

 

INFRA-RED
Electomagnetic radiation beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, generally experienced as heat. See also ULTRA-VIOLET.

 

INTEGRAL TRIPACK
See TRIPACK

 

INTER-DUPE
A duplicate colour negative derived from an inter-positive. A term used locally by Technicolor (probably).

 

INTERCUTTING
Editing the same or similar scene into several different positions in a story or sequence.

 

INTERLABORATORY SURVEY
A regular survey which used to be carried out by Kodak of world motion picture laboratory processing quality and consistency.

 

INTERLACE/INTERLACED VIDEO
A technique, developed originally for analogue television, of doubling the perceived frame rate of an image. Each frame is constructed from two fields, one comprising the odd lines and the other the even lines of the image.

 

INTERMEDIATE (1)
General term for colour film master positives and negatives on a integrally masked film, but also widely used to mean any intermediate step between a camera original and the final print.

 

INTERMEDIATE (2)
(For colour flm) Any element made on an Kodak Eastman or Fuji Colour Intermediate Film (AVERAGE GRADIENT 1.00). Could be an interpositive or an internegative - the same stock is used for both.

 

INTERMITTENT (film)
Mechanism where a film is moved one frame at a time into the gate of, e.g., a projector and there held stationary.

 

INTERNATIONAL TRACK/VERSION
Term sometimes used to refer to a version of a film which has yet to have commentary or subtitles of a particular language added. This term has also been used with other meanings, such as to refer to a version of a film which includes scenes of a nature not deemed suitable for a local audience.

 

INTERNEGATIVE (1)
A duplicate colour negative film made from a colour interpositive using a colour film with an AVERAGE GRADIENT of 1.00. (e.g.Eastman Colour Intermediate Film).

 

INTERNEGATIVE (2)
A colour negative prepared from a reversal camera original or a print, using a colour film stock with an AVERAGE GRADIENT of 0.6 (e.g.Eastman Colour Internegative Film or a camera negative film). (Less common usage than INTERNEGATIVE(1), and possibly only in UK).

 

INTERPOLATION (spatial - digital imagery)
Estimating a value of a pixel from those of its near neighbours. Used for repositioning, re-sizing a digital image for effect, to change picture format, or to insert lost detail.

 

INTERPOLATION (temporal - digital imagery)
Interpolation between the same point in space on successive frames. Used to provide motion smoothing, speed changes, effects, or repair defects.

 

INTERPOSITIVE (1)
A general term for any positive element used as an intermediate stage, ie not the final print.

 

INTERPOSITIVE (2) often abreviated to IP
A colour positive made from a colour negative using a colour film with an AVERAGE GRADIENT of 1.00. (e.g.Eastman or Fuji Colour Intermediate Film) as an intermediate stage in making a duplicate negative/internegative.

 

INTERTITLE
Titles or captions cut between scenes in silent movies. These were often shot on high contrast print film stocks or LITH film to make negatives, which were then printed to make positives. The positive was then usually printed again to make "negative" images which were then used as prints to be cut into the final film print.

 

INTERTITLE NEGATIVE
The camera negative of an intertitles. Silent period intertitle prints were usually negative images. This confusing term is often applied to the print from the original camera negative, which was cut into the picture negative to mage a white on black intertitle screen image. Rarely seen as usually discarded.

 

IP
See INTERPOSITIVE (2)

 

IPS
Inches per second

 

IRIS
A device used to vary the opening of a lens diaphragm.

 

IRIS WIPE
A wipe effect in the form of a increasing or diminishing circle, ie iris in, or iris out.

 

ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network - allows data to be transmitted over the public telephone network as two channels at 64 Kb/s.

 

ITU-R
International Telecommunications Union, Radiocommunications Sector. A treaty organisation that obtains international agreement on standards for radio and television broadcasting. The ITU-R BT series deals with television. Two important ITU-R recommendations are ITU-R Rec. BT.601 and ITU-R Rec. BT.709 dealing with SD and HDTV respectively. Colloquially these are referenced as Rec. 601 and Rec. 709.

 

Java
A general purpose programming language developed by Sun Microsystems and in use on the World Wide Web.

 

JOG
A facility to move a film or video one frame at a time, or by small increments.

 

JOIN
A splice or edit between two pieces of film or tape. See SPLICE.

 

JOINING TAPE
Adhesive tape used in making BUTT SPLICES/TAPE SPLICES in film or TAPE.

 

JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group (ISO/ITU-T). JPEG is a standard for the data compression (by a factor of bwtween 2 and 100) of still pictures and uses three levels of processing: baseline (most widely used), extended, and lossless encoding.

 

JUMBO ROLL
The widest roll of coated film or tape in the manufacturing process before slitting and perforating

 

JUMP CUT
A sharp edit, or a loss of a section of scene, resulting in a jump in the action.

 

JUNK
Discarded film, usually with images, i.e. grading tests, printing errors used where the content is not relevant term typically used in film laboratories).

 

KELVIN
The SI unit of thermodynamic temperature. Used to describe colour temperature. Unit 'k'.

 

KEM
Type of FLATBED film editor manufactured by KEM in Germany.

 

KEY NUMBERS
See EDGE NUMBERS, FOOTAGE NUMBERS.

 

KEYCODE
A machine-readable bar-code printed along the edge of camera negative film giving key numbers, film type, and offset from a zero-frame reference mark in perforations, used for editing and conforming.

 

KEYSTONE DISTORTION
Image distortion on projection when the projector axis is not at 90 degrees to the screen

 

KINEMACOLOR
A two-colour additive process in which the action is filmed through a rotating filter so that successive frames are exposed through red and green filters in turn. On projection, the print was similarly projected through a rotating colour filter.

 

KINESCOPE
A television image recorded on film. Term used in USA - see TELERECORDING.

 

KODACOLOR
A term used by Eastman Kodak for various colour film types, but most commonly associated with KODACOLOR LENTICULAR film.

 

KS PERFORATIONS
Kodak Standard Perforations: Type of perforation shape used in 35mm print film. See also BH PERFORATIONS.

 

LACE
To thread up a projector, printer, tape recorder or any equipment with film or tape.

 

LACQUER
A coating material to protect film or hide scratches, a varnish or other material.

 

LAD
Laboratory Aim Density, a density value used to control the production of intermediate film materials, digital negatives, and projection prints.

 

LAMBERT
See FOOT-LAMBERT, CANDELA.

 

LANGUAGE DUB/LANGUAGE DUBB
A speech track in a different language to the original.

 

LAP DISSOLVE
Overlapping Dissolve, where two film images overlap as one fades in and the other fades out.

 

LATENSIFICATION (1)
See FLASHING.

 

LATENSIFICATION (2)
The intensification of an under-exposed latent image by controlled fogging before development.

 

LATENT IMAGE
The undeveloped invisible image on photographic film prior to development.

 

LAVENDER
Colloquial name for the Kodak film stock, EASTMAN Fine Grain Duplicating Film 1365 (Nitrate Base),which had a pale blue base, introduced in 1936 for making black and white positives (master positives) and for producing duplicate negatives. Commonly used for any monochrome intermediate master positive of the period.

 

LEADER
The length of film prior to the content, giving identification, protection, count-down and other information.

 

LENS
Optical device for generating an image in a camera, printer or projector.

 

LENS APERTURE
The opening of a lens , expressed as f NUMBER.

 

LENTICULAR
A type of b/w film with rows of cylindrical lenses embossed in the surface of the film base which form small b/w images of a striped colour filter positioned in front of the camera lens. When projected though a similar projection filter, the original colours of the scene are created additively. KODACOLOR lenticular film is the most common type.

 

LEVEL SYNC
Refers to when the synchronisation marks on separate film picture and soundrack elements do not have any sound ADVANCE offset. See also PRINTING SYNC.

 

LIGHT BOX
An illuminated panel for viewing film or control strips.

 

LIGHT VALVE
A device to vary to quantity of light reaching a target, as used in, for instance, a printer or an optical sound camera (especially in VARIABLE DENSITY recording).

 

LINE FILM
Old term for orthochromatic or lithographic film processed to a high contrast for titles or intertitles.

 

Linear (editing)
The process of editing footage that can only be accessed or played in the sequence recorded.

 

LINING UP
Setting up any apparatus, such as a camera, before use.

 

LIP SYNC
Exact correspondence between picture and sound recording, also refers to simultaneous recording technique.

 

LIQUID GATE
A PRINTER, TELECINE, or SCANNER GATE where the original film, or both the original film and unexposed stock, are immersed or coated with a liquid in to minimise scratches. The liquid is chosen to have a similar refractive index to the film BASE.

 

LITH FILM
Lithographic film. Very high contrast sheet film used for titles, given a special development to achieve high densities. Was very occasionally used for high contrast masks and titles negatives in cinematograph gauges.

 

LIVE ACTION
Shots of real action rather than, for instance, animation.

 

LONG FOCUS LENS
Lens with a focal length longer than standard for the format. See TELEPHOTO.

 

LONG SHOT
(LS) Scene showing a general view, from a distance.

 

LOOP
Film joined to make a continuous band, for testing purposes, or printing multiple copies, hence loop printer, loop cabinet etc.

 

LOUDSPEAKER
Transducer converting electrical signals to sound.

 

LOW BAND
A video tape recording system not reaching TV broadcast standards.

 

LOW KEY
Scenes in which most subject tones are dark.

 

LOW-PASS FILTER
Device to attenuate high frequency sound

 

LUMA
Signal carrying gamma corrected luminance information, symbol Y'. Used in combination with colour difference signals, e.g. CB and CR . The transformation of R'G'B' signals to luma and colour difference signals is defined in ITU standards, and is different for SD and HD signals.

 

LUMEN
The SI unit of luminous flux.

 

LUMINANCE
Measure of brightness, linearly proportional to intensity, symbol Y. The CIE Y tristimulus component. In video and computer technology luminance is usually gamma corrected to produce luma Y'. See Y, YUV etc.

 

LUX
The SI unit of illumination, equal to one LUMEN per sq m

 

M & E
See MUSIC AND EFFECTS.

 

M AND D
See MASTERS AND DUPES.

 

M AND T
See MUTE AND TRACK.

 

MAGAZINE
Light proof container for film.

 

MAGENTA
Subtractive primary colour. See CYAN/YELLOW.

 

MAGNETIC SOUND TRACK / MAG TRACK
Magnetic sound recording film, consisting of perforated film coated with metal oxide.

 

MAGNETIC STRIPE
A magnetic track applied to the soundtrack area of a film, either during manufacture or after processing, to allow the recording of a MAGNETIC SOUNDTRACK. See also BALANCE TRACK.

 

MAGOPT
A motion picture film print with both optical and magnetic sound tracks (usually of the same track) on the one film.

 

MAIN TITLE
The front (usually) section of a film with titles and credits.

 

MAKE-UP
Assembly of the various elements of a film for printing (a Technicolor term?)

 

MALTESE CROSS
Mechanism for producing intermittent movement in a camera or projector.

 

MARRIED PRINT
A film print with picture and synchronised sound, See COMBINED PRINT & COMPOSITE PRINT. (This term is the prefered BKSTS term.)

 

MARRYING-UP
Assemly and preparation of film elements for printing to make a married print.

 

MASK (1)
A film element whose image is used to modify the image on another film element (usually the original negative when combined in register, see OVERLAY). Used for MATTE effects, and contrast and saturation changes for restoration.

 

MASK (2)
A frame to restrict the dimensions of an aperture in a camera, printer or projector.

 

MASK (INNER)
A mask MASK (2) located behind the camera (or printer) lens, used to create vignettes or shaped images.

 

MASKING (COLOUR)
Using a mask MASK (1) to modify colour saturation or hue of a film image (e.g. for correcting fading).

 

MASKING (CONTRAST)
Using a mask MASK(1) to alter the contrast of a film (e.g. for correcting fading).

 

MASKING (INTEGRAL)
An image created during processing from unused coloured couplers within the dye layers of an integral tripack colour film to correct unwanted dye absorbtions. This causes the typical orange colour of colour negatives and intermediates, and cannot be used on prints.

 

MASKING (PRINTING)
A general term for using a MASK (1) to combine (usually in contact) with another film element negative to make a new element.

 

MASKING (PROJECTION)
A black border to a screen that limits the area of the projected image

 

MASTER (1)
A general term used by, for instance, archives to indicate the best image quality element available (of a title) and therefore conserved more carefully and with greater restrictions on use than other elements.

 

MASTER (2)
A general term for a film element used as the start of a special sequence of printing.

 

MASTER (3)
A specific term used in some circumstances for a camera reversal colour film used for printing and never itself projected, e.g. Ektachrome Commercial Film. (UK laboratory term) See REVERSAL MASTER.

 

MASTER AND DUPES
M & D. All the elements of a feature film (UK term)

 

MASTER POSITIVE
An intermediate positive made from a negative specifically intended for further generation of a duplicate negative. May be used in some circumstances to refer to b/w films only.

 

MATCH DISSOLVE
A dissolve where an object is unchanged but the background changes.

 

MATCHED NEGATIVE
Alternative name for a CUT NEGATIVE.

 

MATCHING
The process of making a CUT NEGATIVE by visually matching the cuts and joins of the CUTTING COPY. A cut negatives is sometimes then called a MATCHED NEGATIVE. (UK terms) See CONFORM.

 

MATRIX (pl MATRICES)
Film (usually positive separation records) with images (usually in relief gelatin) on specialized "wash-off" film stocks, processed in specialized tanning developers, and used in the dye transfer imbibition print processes, in particular Technicolor.

 

MATT
A surface with a diffuse (non specular) reflection

 

MATTE
A completely opaque high contrast MASK (1) image used as an OVERLAY to prevent any exposure in the masked area in order to create special effects (e.g travelling matte and green or blue screen shots). Usually made on a special high contrast and high density film stock.

 

MATTE BOX
A lens shade to hold filters or to obscure a part of the image area.

 

METADATA
Data about data. E.g. Data about the video and audio but not the video or audio essence itself, used for labelling, finding data, classification, record keeping. Metadata on analogue systems includes time code, frame numbers etc

 

MICROFILM
Photographic record of documents, newspapers etc. usually on unperforated 35 or 16mm film made for storage and access.

 

MICRON
1 µm, 0.001mm or 10-6m

 

MIRED
MIcro REciprocal Degree. A unit of colour temperature.

 

MIX (1)
An audio track mixed from more than one element, or the process of doing this. See PRE-MIX, FINAL MIX.

 

MIX (2)
Another term for DISSOLVE (UK term).

 

MIX /MIXING
General term applied to combining elements of sound or picture.

 

MLS
Medium Long Shot

 

MODULATION (sound track)
The variation in area or density in an OPTICAL SOUND TRACK.

 

MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION
MTF: a measure of performance of an optical system, based on its ability to reproduce a pattern of black and white bars at different spatial frequencies.

 

MOIRÉ
Visual interference patterns formed by combinations of rasters, mosaics, or half tones.

 

MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT
Light of effectively one wavelength eg as produced by sodium discharge lamp.

 

MONOCHROME
An image created from a single colour, usually taken to mean a black and white image.

 

MORDANT DYE TONING
Old method of replacing silver images with basic dyes mordanted with silver salts.

 

MOSAIC
A pattern of red,green,and blue filters on film to create an additive colour system (eg DUFAYCOLOR)

 

MOTOR CUE
See CUE DOT.

 

MOVIOLA
A film editing machine. Trade name, widely used for all editors. See FLATBED VIEWER.

 

MP3
Colloquial term for MPEG 1 Layer 3 audio compression standard.

 

MPEG
Moving Picture Experts Group. This an international working group on standards for compression, decompression, and coding moving picture. Commonly used standards are MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4.

 

MPEG-7
A multimedia content description standard (a metadata standard, rather than an encoding standard).

 

MPT
MASTER POSITIVE TRACK: an optical postive track made from an optical negative track. Sometimes called TRACK MASTER POSITIVE

 

MULTI-ROLL PRINTING
A and B, or more, roll printing. See A and B PRINTING.

 

MULTI-TRACK
Magnetic recorder/recording having four or more parallel tracks on 35mm magnetic film.

 

MULTIPLEXER
Device to enable images from several sources to be transferred to film or video.

 

MUSIC AND EFFECTS
M & E. A sound track without the speech or commentary, usually refers to a magnetic tape.

 

MUSIC-TRACK
Audio track of music only.

 

MUTE (2)
In a film laboratory this refers to a reel of negative film without its associated sound track. (UK term)

 

MUTE AND TRACK
Often marked on cans, means both original negative (MUTE (2)) and optical track negative are present. (UK term) See also ACTION AND SOUND, PICTURE AND TRACK.

 

MUTE(1)
A general term for a film which has no sound (though not usually applied to pre-sound era films where the term SILENT is used).

 

MYLAR
3M Trade name for their polyester film base

 

MYLAR TAPE
SPLICING TAPE (US term).

 

NAS
Network-attached storage. Computer data storage connected to a network providing data access to various clients on the network.

 

ND / ND FILTER
See NEUTRAL DENSITY

 

NEG-POS
Refers to a film procduction process employing NEGATIVE and POSITIVE copies, rather than REVERSAL technology.

 

NEGATIVE
Film image in reverse tones, high densities correspond to high brightness.

 

NEGATIVE CUTTING
The process of cutting and splicing together negative film to make a programme, using visual matching or frame numbers located manually or automatically.

 

NEGATIVE DIRT
White marks on a print from dirt and scratches on the negative from which it was made. (Common in US) See PRINTED-IN, SCRATCHES or SPARKLE.

 

NEGATIVE MATCHING
The process of cutting and splicing together negative film to match an editors CUTTING COPY usually by visual frame matching

 

NEGATIVE PERFORATIONS
See BH PERFORATIONS.

 

NEUTRAL DENSITY
Grey neutral colour transparent filter used to reduce exposure.

 

NEWSREEL
A regular cinema magazine news programme

 

NEWTON'S RINGS
Optical interference patterns caused by two surfaces in less than perfect contact. Sometimes seen as a printing defect in film.

 

NG
No Good, a laboratory term meaning faulty, must be redone.

 

NITRATE
Common term for film using cellulose nitrate as the BASE.

 

NOISE
Non image irregular level fluctuations of an image or sound signal. All analogue video signals contain random noise, and film "noise" can be from film grain. Digital noise may be high frequency information and is difficult to tell apart from the wanted signal, and therefore complicates the compression process.

 

NON-DROP-FRAME
Timecode that does not use DROP FRAME.

 

NON-LINEAR EDITING
File-based system where editing can be performed in a non-linear sequence - not the sequence of the original material. See also OFF-LINE EDITING.

 

NOTCH
Shallow notch cut along the edge of a film to trigger the change of printing exposure in a film printing machine.

 

NTSC
National Television System Committee. Generally used to refer to the composite video encoding standard mostly used in North America and Japan. NTSC systems use 525/59.94 scanning, although this is not part of the standard.

 

NUMBER BOARD
See SLATE.

 

OFF-LINE EDITING
Editing using low resolution copies of the source material in order to produce an EDL to which the full quality originals can then be conformed.

 

OFF-SCALE
Outside the range of printing lights of a normal printer.

 

OFFSET
(For sound film) The separation, usually defined by the number of frames, between a point on the film sound track and the corresponding picture image for correct synchronization. See also ADVANCE.

 

OHP
OverHead Projector

 

ON-LINE EDITING
Production of the complete, final edit performed at full programme quality. May be based on an EDL made OFF-LINE.

 

OPEN REEL
A tape transport system with separate feed and take up, not enclosed in a cassette. See also REEL TO REEL.

 

OPTICAL AXIS
Axis from centre of the lens at right angles to the lens plane.

 

OPTICAL PRINTING
Printing of film with a printer that uses a camera to capture the image from a projector via a lens. Allows for special effects and manipulation such as resizing, See also CONTACT PRINTING.

 

OPTICAL SOUND RECORDING
An optical sound track negative produced in an optical SOUND CAMERA.

 

OPTICAL SOUND TRACK
Photographic sound track produced on a film by the modulation of a light beam, printed to make a positive image, and read by a photosensitive device. See also SOUND NEGATIVE.

 

OPTICAL TRACK NEGATIVE
A negative optical film sound track recorded on an optical film SOUND CAMERA, either directly from microphones (pre-1955 approx), or later from MAGNETIC TRACKS, or most recently from a digital system. See SOUIND NEGATIVE, more commonly used in UK.

 

OPTICAL TRACK POSITIVE
A positive optical film sound track, printed from a OPTICAL TRACK NEGATIVE. See SOUND POSITIVE, more commonly used in UK.

 

OPTICALS
General term for special effects made on an optical printer.

 

ORIGINAL
The film element exposed in the camera, the first generation of image.

 

ORTHO / ORTHOCHROMATIC
Film sensitive to Blue and Green light only.

 

OUT OF CONTROL
A term for a film process or control strip whose density readings are outside control limits.

 

OUT OF FRAME
Term to indicate where adjacent frames in 35mm (usually) film are not separated by the correct number of perforations at a SPLICE so that the frame position changes. Also used when the projected image is not correctly positioned vertically on the screen so that the FRAME LINE is visible. (US term).

 

OUT OF RACK
Term to indicate where adjacent frames in 35mm (usually) film are not separated by the correct number of perforations at a SPLICE so that the frame position changes. Also used when the projected image is not correctly positioned vertically on the screen so that the FRAME LINE is visible. (UK term) See also IN RACK, ROLL (2).

 

OUT OF SYNC
Sound and picture not correctly synchronised.

 

OUT-GOING SCENE
The first scene of a dissolve. See also INCOMING SCENE.

 

OUT-TAKE
Alternative shots of scenes that were not used in the final edit .

 

OVERCRANKING
Filming at a slightly higher speed than normal to slow action down, derives from the era of hand-cranked cameras, but still in use.

 

OVERCUT (negative)
A cut negative where each scene is a fixed number of frames longer at both the beginning(head) and the end (tail), usually by 4 to 20 frames. A technique used to avoid handling damage during negative cutting, and/or to avoid splices on 16mm or Technicsope negatives being printed as images. The extras frames, called HANDLES are either not printed or, in digital post-production, removed from the frame sequence.

 

OVERLAP
Extending the sound track into the next scene/reel to improve continuity.

 

OVERLAY (1)
A film element used as one of a pair of film elements used in OVERLAY PRINTING.

 

OVERLAY (2)
The foreground image or cel of an animation (not a film element).

 

OVERLAY PRINTING
Superimposing one film image on another, so as to print two films together as if they were a single image. The overlay could be a MASK, a MATTE or TITLE NEGATIVE.

 

OVERLENGTH
Adjective describing an OVERCUT negative with HANDLES.

 

OVERMODULATE
When the optical sound input signal is too great an amplitude for the for the system to handle.

 

PAL
Phase Alternate Line. A composite video encoding standard mostly used in Europe. Most PAL systems use 625/50 scanning although this is not part of the standard.

 

PAN
To swivel a camera horizontally during filming.

 

PAN / PANCHROMATIC
Of a film stock, sensitive to all wavelengths in the visible spectrum

 

PANEL (PRINTER)
A film printer with the film path on a flat panel layout, often bidirectional.

 

PANORAMA
A wide image, also a trade name of several wide screen systems of the 1950's and 60's.

 

PAPER-TO END SECTION
Method of indicating to a printer operator the section of film to be printed, by placing a paper marker in the reel.

 

PAPER-TO-PAPER SECTION
Method of indicating to a printer operator the section of film to be printed, by placing two paper markers in the reel.

 

PARTICLE TRANSFER ROLLER
Device/roller with a special tacky coating that removes dust particles from film. Commonly called PTR.

 

PATCH
A transparent piece of film used to repair a tear or break.

 

PEEL ROLL / PEELED ROLL
A roll created by winding a number of separate lengths of film onto a single roll without joining together.

 

PEG ANIMATION
Animation shot by locating the sequences of artwork on registration pins.

 

PEG BAR
The registration pins used for peg animation.

 

PERCHLOROETHYLENE/PERC
Solvent used for cleaning film and for WET GATE.

 

PERFORATED SCREEN
A cinema projection screen perforated with small holes so that the sound from loudspeakers placed behind the screen is unimpeded.

 

PERFORATIONS
The holes in film to permit transport. See also BH PERFORATIONS, KS PERFORATIONS, SPROCKET HOLES.

 

PERSISTENCE OF VISION
A characteristic of the human visual system whereby a rapid series of intermittent images is perceived as continuous.

 

PET
Polyethylene terephthalate, a plastic used for film base, usuallly referred to as polyester.

 

PHOSPHOR
A substance emitting light when irradiated by an electron beam, used in cathode ray television screens.

 

PHOTOCHEMISTRY
Chemical reactions which proceed with the absorption of light, thus used to describe the underlying principle of pre-digital photography.

 

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOUND
See OPTICAL SOUND

 

PHOTOMETER
Instrument for measuring luminous intensity, at printer gates, screens, or for exposure determination

 

PHOTOMETRIC FILTER
Filter for raising or lowering the colour temperature of light suitable for the film in use. The effect is measured using the MIRED scale.

 

PICTURE AND TRACK
Master mute negative and matching negative sound track. See also ACTION AND SOUND, MUTE AND TRACK.

 

PILOT PIN
See PIN.

 

PILOT TONE
A tone recorded on audio tape in a system which synchronises camera with an audio tape recorder.

 

PIN / REGISTER PIN
Camera, printer or scanner device which engages in a film perforation in the gate in order to fix the film position during exposure.

 

PINHOLE
A defect on a negative in the form of a small clear (low density) spot, usually the result of faulty processing or manufacture.

 

PITCH (FILM)
The distance between successive points on a film, eg sprocket to sprocket

 

PIXEL (or PEL)
A shortened version of ‘Picture cell’ or ‘Picture element’. The name given to one sample (or set of colour samples) of picture information. The smallest element on a RASTER display. A picture cell with specified colour and/or intensity

 

PIXELATION
The effect where individual pixels or larger blocks of the same colour are apparent to a viewer. Can be caused for instance by poor reception of a digital video stream.

 

PIXILATION
An animation technique in which the illusion of continuous, real movement of three-dimensional objects, often people, is broken and/or made to move unevenly or jerkily through the use of stop-action cinematography (single frame animation) or by printing only selected frames from the continuously-exposed negative.

 

PLATE
A still photograph used as a background in special effects.

 

PLATEN
A surface used to support animation cels and materials.

 

PLATTER
Part of a continuous film projection system, and hence used to mean an entire feature, plus trailers and commercials, spliced together on one roll for projection.

 

POINT
See PRINTER POINT

 

POLYESTER
Polyethylene terephthalate, a plastic used for film base.

 

POSITIVE
An image in which the light (less opaque) areas correspond to light areas in the subject, and the dark (more opaque) areas correspond to the shadow areas in the subject

 

POST PRODUCTION
A general term generally used to cover any of the production process of a film or a television programme subsequent to the original shooting and sound recording.

 

POST SYNC
Post Synchronisation: the process of recording dialogue after filming and synchronising it with the original photography (UK term). See ADR.

 

POSTERIZATION
Banding or lack of continuous tones in an image. A gradual or smooth tonal transition in an original image appears as an abrupt change from one tone to another.

 

PRE-FLASHING
FLASHING of print stocks to reduce contrast.

 

PRE-HARDENER/HARDENER
A hardening solution used as a first process to prepare for a high temperature film process.

 

PRE-MIX (1)
The process of playing all sound material from different souces (for instance FOLEY, SFX, MUSIC, ATMOSPHERE, VOICE-OVER) synchronously as a roughly mixed single track to assess the sound mixing needed.

 

PRE-MIX (2)
The sound element resulting from the PRE-MIX process.

 

PRE-RECORDED
Sound material for a programme that is already recorded.

 

PRE-ROLL
The time taken by camera, projector, telecine to get up to speed. The process of getting up to speed.

 

PREBATH
The first solution of a process, usually a solution for softening REM JET backing on colour film.

 

PRESERVATION (FILM)
The practices necessary to ensure permanent accessibility to the image content of a film.

 

PRESERVATION MASTER
see CONSERVATION MASTER

 

PRESSURE PLATE
That part of a printer, camera or projector that holds the film flat in the gate

 

PREVIEW
A first look, also a special presentation of a feature film prior to premiere or release.

 

PRIMARY COLOURS
Three colours capable of mixing additively or combining subtractively to reproduce all other colours. See ADDITIVE COLOUR/SUBTRACTIVE COLOUR.

 

PRIME LENS
A photographic lens whose focal length is fixed.

 

PRINT (1)
A photographic copy of a film with a positive image, usually made from a negative, and usually intended for projection.

 

PRINT (2)
Loose term for the process of making a copy of a film using a film printer

 

PRINT-THROUGH (1)
A test procedure of printing a control strip on to print stock and measuring the sensitometric response.

 

PRINT-THROUGH (2)
Unwanted transfer of signal on a magnetic tape from adjacent windings.

 

PRINT-THROUGH (3)
Edge codes from previous generations printed through to the current copy.

 

PRINTED-IN
Description of image defects such as SCRATCHES or SPARKLE copied during printing from a previous generation. See NEGATIVE DIRT.

 

PRINTER
A device for exposing an image on one film onto another.

 

PRINTER CUE
Mark on a film to trigger the change of printing exposure in a film printing machine. See also RF CUE.

 

PRINTER LIGHT
See PRINTER POINT

 

PRINTER POINT
A unit of printing light control. In modern printers one point is 0.025LogE, and nominally covers a 50 point scale

 

PRINTER TAPE
Paper tape with punched holes to indicate printing lights and cues. See PUNCHED TAPE.

 

PRINTING SYNC
Refers to when the synchronisation marks on separate film picture and soundrack elements have a sound ADVANCE offset. See also LEVEL SYNC.

 

PROCESS / PROCESSING
The photochemical procedure incorporating the development of the latent image and the subsequent stabilisation stages.

 

PROCESS FILM
High contrast film used for producing high contrast images. See also HI CON.

 

PROCESS SHOT
Loose term for a special effect of separate background and foreground shots combined.

 

PROCESSOR
Equipment for processing, washing and drying film.

 

PRODUCTION AUDIO
Sync sound, or any other sort of wild track or room tone recorded at the shoot. The term is used in sound editing to distinguish between added backgrounds and effects, and those from the actual shoot. (US term)

 

PRODUCTION DUPE
Duplicate negative made for multiple release printing. (UK term)

 

PROGRESSIVE SCAN
A method of displaying or transmitting moving images in which all the lines of each frame are drawn in sequence. See also INTERLACED VIDEO.

 

PROJECTOR
Apparatus for presenting motion picture images on a screen.

 

PROTECTION MASTER (1)
Black and white positives representing the red, green and blue elements of the image, made by printing from camera original colour negatives as long term protection or insurance against loss damage or fading of the original negative. Usually made on specialized panchromatic separation film processed to a Gamma of 1.00. See SEPARATION MASTER.

 

PROTECTION MASTER (2)
Black and white positives representing the red, green and blue elements of the image, made by printing from colour separation negatives (either from camera original separation negatives from a three-strip camera, or from a sequential frame colour negative, or from any other separation negatives). Usually made by printing onto a print film stock developed to a gamma of 1.00.

 

PROTECTION MASTER (3)
General term for a master copy made as a long term protection or insurance against loss damage or fading of the original.

 

PSF
A method of constructing a video frame from two interlaced fields formed from the odd and even lines of the same original frame (often written pSf, as in 24pSf)

 

PTR
see PARTICLE TRANSFER ROLLER.

 

PULL-BACK
A technique in printing film in which the master is partly rewound in order to reprint a section of film.

 

PULL-DOWN
The operation of moving film from one frame to another in a camera, printer or projector.

 

PUNCHED TAPE
Paper tape with punched holes to indicate printing lights and cues. See PRINTER TAPE.

 

PUSH-PULL TRACK
Optical sound track consisting of two tracks of opposite phase, either two half width tracks within the normal track area, or two full width tracks. Used as a noise reduction technique in recording and post-production.

 

QUADRAPHONIC
A four channel sound system.

 

RACK
Term for the alignment from frame to frame of 35mm film, see also IN RACK

 

RACKING
See FRAMING.

 

RAID
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. A storage technology that provides increased reliability and performance by combining multiple disk drive components into a logical unit.

 

RAIN
A multitude of short vertical scratches on film,usually caused by CINCHING.

 

RASTER
The scanned line structure of a TV screen.

 

RAW STOCK
Colloquial term for unexposed film.

 

RB
Same as NG, No Good. Used mostly by Technicolor

 

RE-COMBINED NEGATIVE (or POSITIVE)
A colour negative (or positive) made by printing colour separations or protection masters through R, G & B filters in register onto TRIPACK colour intermediate film stock.

 

RE-RECORDING (1)
Any film element made from a video or data file. Can refer to a negative or to the print made from a negative. See also FILM RECORDING

 

RE-RECORDING (2)
Any film sound track element made on a optical sound recording camera, usually from a magnentic original. See also SOUND RECORDING .

 

REAL TIME
Keeping pace with the events in the "real" world. At normal speed.

 

REAR PROJECTION
Projection onto the rear of a screen, viewed from the front.

 

REC. 601, REC. 709
ITU-R Recommendations BT.601 and BT.709 for SD and HDTV television. See ITU.

 

RECIPROCITY LAW
The inverse relationship between the intensity and duration of exposure that determines the reaction of light-sensitive material in a photographic emulstion.

 

RECIPROCITY LAW FAILURE
A divergence from the RECIPROCITY LAW by photographic emulsions at very high or low intensities.

 

RECONSTRUCTION
The editorial procedure of reassembling a version of a film production to an authoritative original version.

 

RED
One of the three additive primaries.

 

RED MASTER (1)
A local term for a conservation master where the silver image is replaced by silver sulphide to increase longevity, OR a duplicating stock made by Kodak in the 1930's with a brownish image.

 

RED MASTER (2)
B/w pan duplicating film stock made by Kodak in the 1930's with a brownish image due to the development process at that time.

 

RED READER
Optical soundtrack reader on a film projector using a red LED light source suitable for reading CYAN TRACKS.

 

REDUCTION
Mixing multitrack master sound tapes to make a single tape for production.

 

REDUCTION PRINTING
Reducing the image size by OPTICAL PRINTING, eg 35mm to 16mm.

 

REEL
A flanged hub holding film.

 

REEL
A roll of film, a unit of film as part of a film programme, conventionally about 1000 ft/300 m for 35mm film, or more commonly in projection, 2000 ft/ 600 m.

 

REEL TO REEL
Separate supply and take up reels, of a film or tape path, see also OPEN REEL.

 

REFRACTION
Deflection of a light path when passing from one medium to another.

 

REGION CODING
DVDs and Blu-ray discs can be region-coded so as only to play in a particular region (as defined in the player). DVD and BD regions are different.

 

REGISTER PINS
See PINS.

 

REGISTER/REGISTRATION
To cause two or more images to align exactly.

 

REHALOGENATION
A process of reforming the SILVER HALIDES after DEVELOPING to silver, used in some colour film processes.

 

RELEASE PRINT
Film print made for cinema presentation.

 

REM JET
A removable BACKING on film intended to minimise halation. Short for "removable jet black carbon".

 

RESEAU
The mosaic of R,G,and B filters printed on DUFAYCOLOR film.

 

RESOLUTION
The ability of a reproduction system to resolve details. A measure of the finest detail that can be seen, or resolved, in an image.

 

RESOLUTION INDEPENDENT
A term used to describe the notion of equipment that can operate at more than one resolution. Many television devices are designed to operate at a single resolution. Computers can handle files of almost any size so, when used to handle images, are called ‘resolution independent’.

 

RESOLVING POWER
Resolution of a reproduction system expressed numerically, sometimes in lines per mm

 

RESTORATION
The process of compensating for loss, damage and degradation by returning a work of art, an image or artefact to close to it's original content.

 

RETAKE
To photograph a scene again, usually due to an error the first time.

 

RETARD ACTION
Special effect of slowing action by repeat printing of frames (US term).

 

RETICULATION
Distortion, cracks and wrinkles on film emulsion caused by sharp temperature changes during processing. Also caused by severe differential shrinkage between the emulsion and base.

 

REVERSAL (FILM)
Film designed for REVERSAL PROCESSING.

 

REVERSAL EXPOSURE
The exposure of film during REVERSAL PROCESSING in order to "reverse" the image, and produce a positive .

 

REVERSAL MASTER
A camera reversal colour film used for printing and not intended for projection.

 

REVERSAL PRINT
A positive film image made from a REVERSAL film exposed in a camera or by the process of printing from another positive image using REVERSAL film or DIRECT film.

 

REVERSAL PROCESS
A film process that produces a positive image directly, using two developer stages.

 

REVERSE ACTION
An optical effect when the action runs backwards.

 

RF CUE/RF TAB
Metal foil reflective to radio frequency attached to the edge of a film used as film PRINTER CUE.

 

RGB (1)
A COLOUR MODEL based on Red, Green and Blue light.

 

RGB (2)
Abbreviation for the red, green and blue signals, the primary colours for both analysis and synthesis of television images (and the analysis process of modern colour films). Video signals should be written as R', G', and B' to indicate that they are GAMMA corrected.

 

RGB (3)
The Red, Green and Blue PRINTER POINTS used when GRADING (TIMING) a scene.

 

ROCK AND ROLL
Moving a sound track and picture backwards and forwards in sync to locate edit points. See also SCRUB.

 

ROLL (1)
A loose term for a reel or length of film, usually a term used for film on a core rather than a spool.

 

ROLL (2)
The result of slippage on a film printer or telecine where registration has been lost, seen as a vertical movement as the image moves OUT OF RACK.

 

ROLLING TITLE
Title or captions moving from bottom to top on the screen .

 

ROPING
Film damage indentations caused by film running off a sprocket drive, also called RUN-OFF.

 

ROSTRUM CAMMERA
A camera mounted vertically over a platen or graphics, for complex titles or animation.

 

ROTARY PRINTER
A continuous motion contact printer.

 

ROUGH CUT
A first edit that may later be refined by a FINE CUT.

 

RUBBER NUMBERS
Edge or footage numbers applied after processing by a letterpress printing process.

 

RUN OFF
See ROPING.

 

RUN OUT
Any piece of film after the tail leader as a protection for the reel.

 

RUN UP
Length of film on the front of a reel to allow the projector to reach a stable speed.

 

RUNSPEED
Speed at which a film is intended to be played, generally in frames per second. See also SPEED.

 

RUSHES
First print from a camera negative, often made quickly, or overnight, ready to be viewed the following morning. (UK term, see DAILIES, US term).

 

RUSHES REPORT
Written report from a grader for the cameraman, describing the negative and rushes quality.

 

SAFE AREA
The area of picture or frame into which it is safe to place picture, graphics or text so that it will not be masked on viewing. In TV production, the area of the picture expected to be shown on most domestic cathode ray TV screens.

 

SAFELIGHT
A light source with a filter to protect a film from fogging but allow the operator to see.

 

SAFETY BASE
Any non cellulose nitrate film base.

 

SAMPLE PRINT
A print made as a sample of a bulk production of release prints.

 

SAMPLING
Sampling is the process of defining the levels into which analogue variables are separated in order to convert them into digital data. In the case of images pixel resolution defines unit of area, and bit depth defines the units of luminance. Several standards exist for television e.g. 625/50 and 525/60 television is ITUR BT.601, and ITU-R BT.709 specifies sampling for some HD formats. There are no standards for data.

 

SAN
Storage Area Network. A "network" that allows applications direct access to shared storage. A SAN is not networking in the conventional sense.

 

SANDWICHING
Two image films in register with a print raw stock in a contact printer.

 

SATURATION (COLOUR)
The spectral purity of a colour, the degree of difference between grey and a colour.

 

SCANNER
Device for capturing an image as a digital signal. Film scanners may differ from TELECINE machines in having higher resolution and bit depth, slower scanning speed, and no ability to perform adjustments to settings during a scan, although the technologies are converging.

 

SCAVENGER
A processing solution for removing damaging chemicals from a film emulsion

 

SCRATCH
Abrasion of film, either of the base material or the gelatin emulsion.

 

SCREEN (FILM)
The white or silver surface on which a picture is projected for viewing.

 

SCROLLING
The continuous movement of text or graphics across a screen.

 

SCRUB
Moving a sound track and picture backwards and forwards in sync to locate edit points. See also ROCK AND ROLL.

 

SD
Short form for SDTV.

 

SDI
See SERIAL DIGITAL INTERFACE.

 

SDTV
Standard Definition Television. A digital television system in which the quality is approximately equivalent to that of analogue 525/60 and 625/50 NTSC and PAL systems.

 

SE
SUCCESSIVE EXPOSURE

 

SECOND NEGATIVE
A negative take that is not rush printed.

 

SECTION PRINT
A print of a part of a roll of film.

 

SENSITOMETER
Device for exposing a film SENSITOMETRIC STRIP to a precise set of levels.

 

SENSITOMETRIC STRIP
Strip of film exposed to precise set of levels for exposure and processing control. See also STEP WEDGE, CONTROL STRIP.

 

SENSITOMETRY
Study of the effect of light on film, the relationship between exposure and density

 

SEPARATION (1)
The procedure of using a tricolor filter to make a SEPARATION NEGATIVE or POSITIVE.

 

SEPARATION (2)
A general term for a photographic record of red, green or blue components of a scene – sometimes termed Blue, Green or Red separations or, in Technicolor terminology, Yellow, Magenta or Cyan Negative or Positives.

 

SEPARATION MASTER
See PROTECTION MASTER, SEPARATION POSITIVE

 

SEPARATION NEGATIVE
A negative photographic record of red, green or blue components of a scene – individually termed Blue, Green or Red separations (or in Technicolor terminology, Yellow, Magenta or Cyan Negatives). May also refer to two-colour separations, e.g. Blue/Cyan and Orange.

 

SEPARATION POSITIVE
A positive photographic record of red, green or blue components of a scene – individually termed Blue, Green or Red separations (or in Technicolor terminology, Yellow, Magenta or Cyan Positives or PROTECTION MASTERS).

 

SEPMAG
A print projection system in which the sound is held on a separate magnetic film element. Normally projected using DOUBLE HEADED projection or telecine. (UK term)

 

SEPOPT
Separate Optical, a term for separate optical sound track and negative or print. See also SEPPIC.

 

SEPPIC
Separate Picture, a term used to describe a film held as two separate elements, picture and sound. This terms seems to be unrelated to SEPMAG, SEPOPT, COMMAG etc. (Not a common term). See also M & T (Mute and Track), and A & S (Action and Sound).

 

SEQUENTIAL FRAME
Used principally for animation in Technicolor, where the red, green and blue element of each frame is recorded in sequence on a single b/w film (rather than on three separate rolls of film as in live action photography). Also applies to colour systems such as KINEMACOLOR. Also referred to as SUCCESSIVE FRAME. SUCCESSIVE EXPOSURE.

 

SERIAL DIGITAL INTERFACE
A family of SMPTE standards for digital video interfaces. Commonly used for Rec. 601 component digital signals carried on 75 Ω coaxial cables with BNC connectors.

 

SERVER (FILE)
A computer system which serves information such as programs and files to users on the network. A single computer may have several server programs running concurrently.

 

SERVER (VIDEO)
A storage system that provides audio and video storage for a network of clients, usually based on digital disk storage.

 

SET
An artificial scene constructed in a studio or stage.

 

SFX
Either SOUND EFFECTS or SPECIAL EFFECTS.

 

SHOOT
Colloquial term for operating a camera.

 

SHORT END
A piece of unexposed film left at the end of a roll in a camera printer, often removed before processing to use for short scenes.

 

SHOT
A single operation of a camera. See TAKE.

 

SHOULDER
The upper part above the straight portion of the CHARACTERISTIC CURVE of a film showing the response to high exposures.

 

SHOW PRINT / SHOW COPY
A selected carefully produced print, or a corrected answer print.

 

SHRINKAGE (FILM)
Reduction of dimensions of a film due to ageing.

 

SHUTTER
The part of a camera which controls the length of exposure.

 

SHUTTLE
Play a film or video forward and backwards to search, often at an accelerated pace.

 

SI
International System of Units based on the metric system.

 

SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO
The relationship between unwanted noise and wanted signal. In video, noise has a grain-like appearance. Usually expressed in dB.

 

SILENT (1)
An adjective describing a film element (or a silent film programme) that has no associated audio track.

 

SILENT (2)
A film made with no soundtrack, usually pre-1930.

 

SILVER
A lustrous white, ductile, malleable metallic element (Ag) which photochemical photography and cinematography rely on. Light sensitive silver salts are used for image capture in photographic film.

 

SILVER HALIDE
A compound formed from silver and one of the halogens (generally chlorine, bromine or iodine) used as the light sensitive constituent of photographic emulsions.

 

SINGLE SYSTEM
The recording film and sound directly onto a single film, either with an optical soundtrack or, where the film has a MAGNETIC STRIPE, a magnetic soundtrack.

 

SKIP FRAME
Optical effect in which frames are omitted regularly in order to speed up the action.

 

SKIVINGS
Fine slivers of film created by the slitting process during the manufacture of film, or after processing.

 

SLASH DUPE
Black and white (usually) dupe neg made cheaply as a rough record. Or a black and white diapositive made from a CUTTING COPY on Eastman MP Direct film, or a colour print on a colour reversal film.

 

SLASH PRINT
Any quickly and cheaply made print, often on Eastman MP Direct Film, see DIRECT PRINT.

 

SLATE
A board, usually black, marked with scene and shot details, filmed at the beginning (or occasionally at the end) of a TAKE.

 

SLIDE
A transparent still film image used for projection.

 

SLIT / SLITTING
Cutting film during manufacture or after processing to produce the final film width

 

SLO-MO
Colloquial term for SLOW MOTION.

 

SLOP PRINT
Duplicate copy of a WORK PRINT, often made for a sound editor (US term). See SLASH PRINT, DIRTY DUPE.

 

SLOPE
Steepness of a curve or graph, as in the CHARACTERISTIC CURVE for a film, where the slope is equivalent to GAMMA.

 

SLOW MOTION
Operating a camera faster than normal in order to slow down motion. Generally not as fast as HIGH SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY.

 

SLUG
Section of clear film cut into a negative to correct synchronization problems, or to replace missing picture frames. May also refer to BLACK LEADER/SPACING.

 

SMPE
Society of Motion Picture Engineers, original name, USA

 

SMPTE
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, USA

 

SNOW
Random noise interference on a TV screen. Occasionally used also for severe SPARKLE on film.

 

SOFT EDGE
A diffuse edge to detail, or to a matte or wipe edge, (may be intentional or not).

 

SOFT FOCUS
Blurred image produced by a soft focus lens, producing a veiled effect.

 

SOLARISATION
A positive image in which the tone is partly reversed, ie. light areas made dark, either deliberately or by accident .

 

SOUND ADVANCE
See ADVANCE.

 

SOUND CAMERA (1)
Device to record a sound signal on to film in order to produce an OPTICAL SOUNDTRACK negative.

 

SOUND CAMERA (2)
Colloquial term for a film camera capable of recording picture and sound together.

 

SOUND EFFECTS
SFX or FX. Effects produced for a film or TV production, often artificially created in a sound effects studio. See also EFFECTS TRACK.

 

SOUND GATE
The part of a printer where a negative optical track is exposed onto the print stock.

 

SOUND HEAD
The the optical or magnetic sound track reader on a reproducer or projector.

 

SOUND NEGATIVE
A negative optical film sound track recorded on an optical film SOUND CAMERA, either directly from microphones (pre-1955 approx), or later from MAGNETIC TRACKS, or most recently from a digital system. See OPTICAL TRACK NEGATIVE, more commonly used in US.

 

SOUND POSITIVE / PRINT (1)
A positive optical film sound track, printed from a SOUND NEGATIVE. See OPTICAL TRACK POSITIVE, more commonly used in US.

 

SOUND POSITIVE / PRINT (2)
Loose term for a film print with both picture and sound track, easily confused with SOUND POSITIVE/PRINT (1).

 

SOUND PROJECTOR
Film projector with a SOUND HEAD (commonly used for amateur film projectors).

 

SOUND TRACK (1)
A general term for any optical sound image, or magnetic track, magnetic stripe on a film.

 

SOUND TRACK (2)
A general term for the sound content of a film.

 

SOUND-ON-FILM
General term for a combined image and sound on a film, usually a print. Also used in early years of sound film as a contrast to Vitaphone and other systems that were "Sound on disc"

 

SPACING
Film, usually black, opaque white or clear, inserted into a roll for any reason. Occasionally JUNK film, i.e.discarded film with images, is used.

 

SPARKLE
Transient white marks on a positive film caused by dust on the negative it was printed from. See NEGATIVE DIRT.

 

SPECIAL EFFECTS
General term for an illusion or distortion of time or reality, in film or video.

 

SPECTRUM
In optics, the continuous range of visible wavelengths of light.

 

SPEECH TRACK
A sound track used in the production process with voice only, ie no music or effects. See also DIALOGUE TRACK, COMMENTARY TRACK.

 

SPEED (FILM)
General term for the RUNSPEED in frames per second, or feet/metres per second of cameras, printers and projectors.

 

SPEED (SENSITIVITY)
Numerical value defining the sensitivity to light of a film emulsion.

 

SPLICE
A join in a length of film (or MAGNETIC TRACK of TAPE).

 

SPLICING TAPE
Adhesive tape used in making BUTT SPLICES/TAPE SPLICES in film or TAPE. See also MYLAR TAPE.

 

SPLIT SCREEN
Optical effect of two or more separate images within a single frame

 

SPOKING
Distortion in a roll of film so that the roll appears angular, not round, usually caused by differential shrinkage between EMULSION and BASE.

 

SPOOL
Flanged film roll holder for projection.

 

SPOOL (Verb)
To wind up onto a reel, core or spool.

 

SPROCKET
A tooth or a toothed drum or wheel used to drive or transport PERFORATED film.

 

SPROCKET HOLES
The perforations in film and MAGNETIC TRACKS.

 

SQUEEGEE
Flexible wiper blade for wiping away liquid.

 

SQUEEZED
Loose term for an image with ANAMORPHIC compession.

 

ST
SOUND TRACK.

 

STAR FILTER
Filters that produces star pattern effects on images of light sources

 

STARBURST
An effect of a rotating star increasing in size inserted as a short transition between scenes

 

STATIC
High electrostatic voltages, the result of friction, that fog or expose unprocessed film.

 

STATIC MARKS/TREES
Images, often treelike or spidery, caused by static electricity.

 

STEENBECK
Type of FLATBED film editor manufactured by STEENBECK in Germany.

 

STEP PRINTING
Film printing frame by frame using an intermittent mechanism whereby each frame is held stationary in the printer gate during exposure. See also CONTINUOUS PRINTING.

 

STEP WEDGE
Loose term for SENSITOMETRIC STRIP.

 

STEREO
Colloquial term for stereophonic or stereoscopic.

 

STEREOPHONIC
Of sound reproduction involving at least two channels giving the impression of direction and spatial distribution.

 

STEREOSCOPIC
Of image reproduction where pairs of images presented separately to the viewer's left and right eye give the illusion of three dimensional depth.

 

STEREOSCOPIC PAIR
Two images that correspond to the left and right eye images for a stereoscopic reproduction system. For film, these may be together on a single film, or on two separate film reels.

 

STILL FRAME
See FREEZE FRAME.

 

STOCK
A general term for any any cinematographic film, often unexposed.

 

STOCK NUMBERS
Term for data on the edge of a film, usually codes for the type of film. Also used to mean EDGE NUMBERS.

 

STOCK SHOT
A library shot commonly used and reused.

 

STOP FRAME
See FREEZE FRAME.

 

STOP MOTION
ANIMATION technique in which a camera is operated manually one frame at a time.

 

STORY BOARD
A series of still pictures or cartoons representing each scene of a film or video.

 

STRETCH PRINTING
Optical printing effect in which frames are repeated regularly in order to slow the action down

 

STRIPE
See MAGNETIC STRIPE.

 

STRIPING
The process of applying a MAGNETIC STRIPE to film.

 

SUBBING LAYER
A coating applied to the BASE of film during manufacture to allow the emulsion layer to adhere. Sometimes refers to other layers, such as antistatic layers, in a film.

 

SUBSTRATE
Alternative term for SUBBING LAYER, also used for any film BASE material.

 

SUBTITLE
A title at the bottom of a motion picture frame usually to translate the sound track language, or for the hard of hearing.

 

SUBTRACTIVE COLOUR
Colour created by mixing together dyes, paints etc. of different colours (usually Cyan, Magenta and Yellow) so that each colour absorbs (subtracts) some parts of the SPECTRUM. See also ADDITIVE COLOUR.

 

SUBTRACTIVE SYNTHESIS (COLOUR)
The creation of colour by mixing together dyes, paints etc. of different colours (usually Cyan, Magenta and Yellow) so that each colour absorbs (subtracts) some parts of the SPECTRUM. See also ADDITIVE SYNTHESIS.

 

SUCCESSIVE EXPOSURE
As SEQUENTIAL FRAME (US term). Abbreviation SE.

 

SUCCESSIVE FRAME
See SEQUENTIAL FRAME.

 

SURROUND SOUND
A general term for sound reproduction in which the listener is surrounded by sound from at least four channels.

 

SWEETENING
A general term for improving sound quality and matching it precisely to a film image.

 

SYNC
See SYNCHRONISATION.

 

SYNC MARK
A mark, usually X, on one film frame to indicate synchronisity with a similar mark or a SYNC PULSE/BLIP on a soundtrack.

 

SYNC PULSE
A short sound on an optical or magnetic track to be synchronised with a SYNC MARK on a film. See BLIP.

 

SYNCHRONISATION
The process of aligning any separate sound track with a picture image.

 

SYNCHRONISER
Device for running two or more film and/or sound track films at once and at the same rate.

 

SYNTHESIS (PRINTING)
The process of reproducing a colour image from the ANALYSIS records.

 

T-STOP
Measure of actual light transmission through a lens at varying apertures.

 

TABLE 3
Table 3 of the ATSC Digital Television Standard A/53, Annex A, summarises the many picture formats allowed for Digital TV transmission in the USA. Any one of these may be compressed and transmitted. An DTV receiver must be able to display pictures from any of these formats. There are 23 different formats in the table with some 18 for HDTV.

 

TABS
Colloquial term for RF CUES.

 

TAIL
The end of a roll of film. See also HEAD.

 

TAIL OUT
A reel of film or tape wound so that the end is on the outside of the reel. See also END OUT, HEAD OUT.

 

TAKE
A scene filmed in a single shot without stopping the camera. There may be multiple takes filmed for any scene. See SHOT

 

TAKE-UP
The part of a piece of film or tape equipment which winds up the film/tape into a roll.

 

TAPE (1)
Unperforated magnetic sound or video recording material.

 

TAPE (2)
See JOINING TAPE/SPLICING TAPE.

 

TAPE SPLICE
SPLICE made with SPLICING TAPE.

 

TAPE-TO-FILM RECORDING
A film record produced from a video tape (Analogue or Digital).

 

TELECINE
Equipment for (or the act of) transferring film (and soundtracks) to video, originally used for direct TV broadcast, more recently for recording on videotape. Often abbreviated to TK.

 

TELEPHOTO LENS
A camera lens with a long focal length.

 

TELERECORDING (1)
A method of capturing a TV or video image on film by filming a monitor (with a fast pull-down camera). UK term, see KINESCOPE, US term.

 

TELERECORDING (2)
A print from a TELERECORDING NEGATIVE.

 

TELERECORDING NEGATIVE
A film negative made by TELERECORDING.

 

TEMP DUB
A temporary audio mix made before the final mix often using temporary music, effects and narration, etc. (US term)

 

TEST FILM
Specially made film with images for testing, for instance, projector, printer, scanner, film characteristics.

 

THAW
A return to action after a freeze frame effect.

 

THREAD
See LACE.

 

THREE PERF / 3-PERF
System in which 35mm film is exposed in a camera with 3-perf PULL-DOWN, that is where the film is advanced by three instead of the usual four perforations for each frame, and with a wide ASPECT RATIO, so that 25% less film is used.

 

THREE STRIP
A colour system using three separate colour separation negative elements, ie Red, Green and Blue records on separate black and white films. Notably used in the Technicolor three strip system.

 

THREE-COLOUR
Any colour system using either three ADDITIVE or three SUBTRACTIVE colour elements.

 

THROW
Distance from a projector lens to the screen.

 

TIME LAPSE
Film or video recording with a controlled delay between frames, used to greatly speed up the action.

 

TIMER
See GRADER, (US term).

 

TIMING
See GRADING. (US term).

 

TINT /TINTING /TINTED
Black and white print film coloured by dyeing the film base or the gelatin with colour dye. See also TONE.

 

TITLE NEGATIVE
A negative film element with titles. May be conventional images, computer graphics, effects negatives, or an OVERLAY to be used with a background picture negative.

 

TK
See TELECINE.

 

TOE
The lower part below the straight portion of the CHARACTERISTIC CURVE of a film showing the residual minimum density with no exposure.

 

TONE/TONING
Black and white print film in which the silver image is converted to a coloured image by a chemical process. See also TINT.

 

TONING BATH/TONER
An aqueous solution for TONING black and white film.

 

TRACK (1)
A general term for SOUNDTRACK.

 

TRACK (2)
As a digital term, refers to any of various tracks (image, sound, subtitle, etc.) in a moving image file.

 

TRACK APPLICATOR
Device for applying a viscous developer solution in a bead or stripe to an optical sound track print. See APPLICATION.

 

TRACK MASTER POSITIVE
See MPT

 

TRACK NEGATIVE
A film with a negative optical sound track only. See SOUND NEGATIVE, OPTICAL TRACK NEGATIVE.

 

TRACKING (IMAGE)
Following a defined point, or points, in a series of pictures in a clip. It can be applied to control picture moving for special effect, removal of film weave and unsteadiness, damage repair, replacing moving objects etc.

 

TRAVELLING MATTE (1)
A film SPECIAL EFFECT created by printing a moving foreground action from one source with background from another.

 

TRAVELLING MATTE (2)
The MASK element used to separate the foreground from the background, made from a green or blue screen negative, in order to create a TRAVELLING MATTE effect.

 

TRIACETATE
Loose term for the common form of CELLULOSE ACETATE film base in which nearly all hydroxyl groups of cellulose have been replaced by acetate groups. See also DIACETATE.

 

TRICHLOROETHYLENE
Solvent used for cleaning film, now no longer used for health reasons.

 

TRICOLOR FILTERS
A set of three colour filters for exposing black and white separation negatives or positives.

 

TRIMS
Portions of scenes left behind after the utilised part is cut into a production. See also CUTS & TRIMS.

 

TRIMS AND OUTS
Portions of scenes and out-takes left behind after the utilised part is cut into a production, often stored after negative cutting. See also TRIMS., CUTS AND TRIMS.

 

TRIPACK
A colour film with three separate Red, Green, and Blue sensitive layers on a single base. Sometimes called an integral tripack.

 

TRIPLE BILATERAL SOUND TRACK
Three parallel BILATERAL SOUND TRACKS.

 

TTL
Through The Lens: method of determining exposure by reading the light level through the imaging lens of the camera.

 

TWO PERF / 2-PERF
System in which 35mm film is exposed in a camera with 2-perf PULL-DOWN, that is where the film is advanced by two instead of the usual four perforations for each frame, and with a wide ASPECT RATIO, so that 50% less film is used.

 

TWO STRIP
A colour system using two separate colour separation negative elements, usually Orange and Green-blue records on separate black and white films.

 

TWO-COLOUR
Any colour system using either two ADDITIVE or two SUBTRACTIVE colour elements.

 

TYPE A
Refers to colour film balanced for 3400K scene illumination

 

TYPE B
Refers to colour film balanced for 3200K scene illumination

 

TYPE D
Refers to colour film balanced for 5400K or similar scene illumination, equivalent to daylight

 

U-MATIC
Video tape system developed by Sony using 3/4 inch tape in cassettes.

 

ULTRA-VIOLET
Electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths just shorter than the visible spectrum, immediately next to violet light. See also INFRA-RED.

 

ULTRASONIC CLEANER
A device for cleaning film using ultrasonically induced cavitation in a solvent.

 

ULTRSONIC SPLICER
Device which makes a welded join in POLYESTER film by using ultrasound to fuse the overlapping ends of two pieces of film together.

 

UN
Short for UNISSUED, an unissued newsreel or edition.

 

UNDER-CRANKED
A film shot at less than normal speed, in order to produce a speeded up effect on projection, or sometimes in order to achieve acceptable exposure in low light conditions.

 

UNIDIRECTIONAL
In one directional only, usually referring to film printers.

 

UNILATERAL SOUND TRACK
An optical photographic sound track, one single sided asymmetric variable area, ie. modulated on one side only.

 

UNSQUEEZED
The process of displaying an anamorphic image in uncompressed form, by projection or printing.

 

UP-AND-DOWN TRACKS
A 35mm photographic sound film with two tracks, one running in each direction on either side of the film.

 

UP-REZING/UP-RESING
Increasing the number of pixels used to represent an image by interpolating between existing pixels to create new ones – typically used to improve the visual appearance of an SDTV image transferred/recorded to film, or converted to HDTV. The process does not increase the resolution of the image.

 

VARIABLE AREA TRACK
Uniform density optical film sound track in which the image width varies with the sound modulation.

 

VARIABLE DENSITY TRACK
Uniform width optical film sound track in which the image density varies with the sound modulation.

 

VIEWFINDER
Optical device for viewing an image, on a camera or printer.

 

VIGNETTE / VIGNETTING
An image in a diffuse oval or round surround.

 

VINEGAR SYNDROME
Decomposition of cellulose acetate film base over time producing acetic acid.

 

VISCOUS PROCESSING
Film processing using surface applied viscous solutions. See also APPLICATION.

 

VOICE TRACK
Any sound track with voices, without other music or effects. See also SPEECH TRACK/DIALOGUE TRACK/COMMENTARY TRACK.

 

VOICE-OVER / TRACK
See COMMENTARY TRACK.

 

VTR
Video Tape Recorder

 

WALK THROUGH
A scene played though without filming. See also DRY RUN.

 

WEAVE
Lateral movement of film in projection, printing or camera causing side to side unsteadiness.

 

WEDGE
Loose term for SENSITOMETRIC STRIP. See also STEP WEDGE.

 

WET GATE
A printer, telecine or scanner gate where the original film, or both the original film and unexposed stock, are immersed or coated with a liquid in to minimise scratches. The liquid is chosen to have a similar refractive index to the film BASE. See also LIQUID GATE.

 

WET PRINTING
Contact or optical printing using a WET GATE.

 

WHIP PAN
A rapid PAN in which the image is blurred and indistinct.

 

WIDESCREEN (1)
General term for any ASPECT RATIO greater than Academy 1.33:1 (4:3).

 

WIDESCREEN (2)
A term used for a projection ASPECT RATIO of 1.85:1, as opposed to any other wide aspect ratio format.

 

WIDESCREEN (TV)
A TV picture that has an aspect ratio wider than the ‘normal’ 4:3 - usually 16:9 - while still using the normal SD video. 16:9 is also the aspect ratio used for HDTV.

 

WILD SHOOTING
Picture shot without synchronised sound.

 

WILD TRACK
Sound recorded without synchronised picture.

 

WIPE
A scene transition where one image replaces another by a boundary moving across the frame.

 

WORK PRINT
Term used by editors fo a CUTTING COPY, or a print from a cutting copy (see SLASH DUPE).

 

WRAPAROUND
The degree of any close contact of film or tape around a capstan, drum, sprocket wheel or other drive system.

 

WRATTEN FILTER
A Kodak optical filter for camera or printer, identified by a number, e.g. Wratten 25.

 

WYSIWYG
What You See Is What You Get. Usually, but not always, referring to the accuracy of a screen display in showing how the final result will look.

 

X-AXIS
The horizontal axis of a graph. See also Y-AXIS, Z-AXIS.

 

XENON ARC
An arc lamp which uses xenon gas at high pressure to produce an intense white light. Commonly used in film projectors since the phasing out of CARBON ARCs.

 

XYZ
A wide GAMUT COLOUR SPACE defined by CIE, and specified for use in DIGITAL CINEMA applications.

 

Y
The symbol for linear-light luminance, the CIE Y tristimulus component. Often carelessly used for luma Y'.

 

Y-AXIS
The vertical axis of a graph. See X-AXIS, Z-AXIS.

 

Y, CB, CR
The luma and colour difference signals of digital component video. CB and CR are the colour difference signals (B'-Y') and (R'-Y') scaled and offset for digital distribution. The scaling factors are different for SD and HD signals.

 

Y'
The luma component of a video signal.

 

Y', (R'-Y'), (B'-Y')
These are the analogue LUMA, Y', and colour difference signals (R'-Y') and (B'-Y') of component video. Y' is the gamma-corrected luminance information or luma. The colour information signals are the differences between a colour and luma, red minus luma and blue minus luma, and are derived from the original RGB source (eg a camera or telecine). All components are gamma corrected which is denoted by the prime.

 

Y', PB, PR
The luma and colour difference signals of analogue component video. PB and PR are the colour difference signals (B'-Y') and (R'-Y') scaled to the same excursion as Y' for transmission.

 

Y'UV
Luma and two colour difference signals scaled for encoding into a composite video signal. Often incorrectly used as YUV.

 

YCM
Yellow, Cyan, Magenta, the subtractive primaries, also print grading lights (in Technicolor). Also referred to as CMY.

 

YELLOW
A subtractive primary colour. See CYAN/MAGENTA

 

YUV
Shorthand commonly – but incorrectly – used to describe analogue luma and colour difference signals in various component video systems. The term seems to have become used simply because YUV is easier to remember than accurate technical terms. See Y'UV/ Y', PB, PR/ Y, CB, CR

 

Z-AXIS
The other horizontal axis of a three dimensional graph. See X-AXIS, Y-AXIS.

 

ZERO-CUT
Using A & B CUTTING to avoid 16mm splices being seen on the print.

 

ZOOM
The visual effect resulting from varying the focal length of a zoom lens during filming.

 

ZOOM LENS
Lens having a variable focal length.